Inspectioneering
Explore:

Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

Overview of Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

Nondestructive Testing (NDT) consists of a variety of non-invasive inspection techniques used to evaluate material properties, components, or entire process units. The techniques can also be utilized to detect, characterize, or measure the presence of damage mechanisms (e.g. corrosion or cracks). NDT is also commonly referred to as nondestructive examination (NDE), nondestructive evaluation (NDE), and nondestructive inspection (NDI). Many NDT techniques are capable of locating defects and determining the features of the defects such as size, shape, and orientation. The purpose of NDT is to inspect a component in a safe, reliable, and cost effective manner without causing damage to the equipment or shutting down plant operations. This is in contrast to destructive testing where the part being tested is damaged or destroyed during the inspection process.

NDT can be performed during or after manufacture, or even on equipment that is in service. In manufacturing, NDT inspections determine if parts are fit for a desired function. In other words, parts are inspected to ensure they will last a certain amount of time or cycles before failure. During operation, NDT inspections can be used to asses the current damage state of equipment, monitor damage mechanisms, and make informed decisions for remaining equipment life evaluations (e.g., RBI, FFS).

Overview of NDT Methods

NDT methods can generally be classified into two categories: conventional and advanced. Each method has its own characteristic advantages and limitations. More information on each test can be found in their respective Integripedia definitions.

Conventional NDT Techniques

Conventional methods are techniques that have matured over the course of decades and in this time, have become well-documented in codes, standards, and best practices. The setup and procedure of a conventional technique is typically simpler in comparison to advanced methods.

Advanced NDT Techniques

Advanced methods tend to be less understood as they progress as emerging technologies, e.g. uncertain advantages or limitations, lack of technician qualification criteria, or little to no industry codification. Generally, the setup, procedure, and data interpretation of advanced methods is more complicated and can require specialized understanding and experience from a properly trained technician.

Furthermore, some methods can be further broken down into conventional and advanced techniques. Take two forms of ultrasonic testing for example, straight beam ultrasonic testing (UT) is a conventional technique used in simple applications whereas phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) is an advanced UT technique. As advanced techniques mature, new and more advanced versions of each emerge to start a new cycle of technical understanding and technician training.

  • Electromagnetic Testing (ET)
  • Laser Testing Methods (LM)
    • Holographic Testing
    • Laser Profilometry
    • Laser Shearography
  • Radiographic Testing (RT)
    • Computed Radiography (CR)
    • Computed Tomography (CT)
    • Digital Radiography (DR)
  • Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
    • Angle Beam
    • Automated Ultrasonic Backscatter Technique (AUBT)
    • Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT)
    • Immersion Testing
    • Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS)
    • Long Range Ultrasonic Testing (LRUT)
    • Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT)
    • Full Matrix Capture-Total Focusing Method PAUT (FMC TFM)
    • Time-of-Flight-Diffraction (TOFD)

Overall, NDT offers many advantages compared to destructive testing. The testing equipment is often portable and can be performed numerous times on a single component. The component itself can be thoroughly evaluated externally and internally for harmful flaws. The disadvantage is that the results are often qualitative and may be repeated and interpreted differently by various inspectors.

Industry Applications of NDT

NDT inspections are an integral part of the oil and gas and petrochemical industries, along with several other industries, including chemicals, aerospace, automotive, and defense. The overall goal of all these industries is to detect flaws in components to reduce failure and increase reliability.

In the petrochemical industry, NDT inspections are utilized throughout a facility’s lifecycle. This cradle-to-grave approach is an important element of asset integrity management. Furthermore, NDT inspections provide historical data about the facility’s process units and provide information on how often a component should be inspected, repaired, or replaced. Inspection intervals and tests may be changed depending on where the equipment is in its life-cycle (e.g. newly manufactured equipment vs. aging equipment). Performing multiple assessments throughout the equipment’s life-cycle may seem expensive. However, inspections conducted at specific intervals may end up saving an organization millions of dollars if testing reveals threats and equipment is repaired before shutting down the facility or experiencing a catastrophic failure.

The most common pieces of equipment that undergo inspection in the petrochemical industry are storage tanks, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, and piping systems. When planning an NDT inspection, there are four considerations one should account for:

  1. The type of damage mechanism to be inspected for
  2. The minimum detectable flaw size, shape, and orientation of the defect
  3. Where the defect is located (surface or internal)
  4. The sensitivities and limitations of the NDT method

With the above factors considered, operators can optimize facility production and increase personnel and environmental safety.

Codes and Standards Bodies

NDT is often prescribed by codes and standards for the fabrication of components, safety critical parts, and in-service equipment. Therefore, it is critical for all refinery, chemical plant, gas plant, and pipeline owners to have thorough understanding and experience in the interdisciplinary field of NDT. In addition to the factors listed above (Industry Application section) personnel should continuously develop knowledge about evolving technology and performing up-to-date procedures.

Specific codes, standards, specifications, regulations, and recommended practices may depend on the country and industry performing NDT. The following is a list of organizations (standards bodies) that develop and publish industrial codes, standards, and recommended practices for NDT methods relating to the oil and gas and chemical processing industries:

A complete list of regulations created by the U.S. government may be found in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Regulations critical to the petrochemical and chemical processing industries can be found under Title 10, Energy, and Title 49, Transportation.1

Training and Certification

Levels of Certification

Many NDT programs have three levels of qualification. A brief description of Level I, Level II, and Level III qualifications are outlined below and found in the ASNT Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A document.2

Level I: At the end of a Level I certification program, individuals should be able to perform specific calibrations, specific NDT, and specific evaluations to determine if a component should be accepted or rejected for service.

Level II: Level II individuals should have the same abilities as Level I individuals and additionally, should be able to set-up, calibrate, perform, and evaluate NDT results with respect to applicable codes, standards, and specifications.

Level III: The highest qualified level of NDT personnel should have the same abilities as Level II individuals and additionally, be able to develop and qualify procedures, establish and approve techniques, interpret codes, standards, specifications and procedures, and assign particular NDT methods to use in specific applications.

Certification Requirements

Requirements are based on a combination of training, examination, and experience. Training is based on an accumulation of training course outlines from the NDT Body of Knowledge document. More detail on the ASNT NDT Body of Knowledge can be found in the ANSI/ASNT American National Standard CP-105. The purpose of the Body of Knowledge is to describe the knowledge and skills needed for different levels of certification. Several types of examinations are also necessary to meet minimum requirements and to recertify. Individuals may have to take a written exam, specific exam, or a practical exam depending on the certification desired. Experience in NDT or NDT-related fields as well as on-the-job training programs are also considered for certification.

Accredited Bodies for Training and Certification

American Petroleum Institute (API) — API offers numerous Individual Certification Programs (ICPs) specific to NDT personnel in the petroleum and petrochemical industries.

American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) — ASNT is a globally recognized organization that offers credentials for NDT personnel in a broad range of industries. Current certification programs include ASNT NDT Level II, ASNT NDT Level III, ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP), and Industrial Radiography and Radiation Safety Personnel (IRRSP). 

British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (BINDT) — BINDT is an accredited certification body and offers a Personnel Certification in Non-Destructive Testing (PCN).

International Standards Organization (ISO) — ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing -- Qualification and certification of NDT personnel) is a published standard that details the requirements for qualification and certification of personnel that perform NDT.

Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) — NRCan manages the Non-Destructive Testing Certification Body (NDTCB) which offers a Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB) certification.

The Welding Institute (TWI) — TWI offers personnel credentials through their accredited CSWIP certification schemes.

References

  1. 2016, “Codes and Standards Bodies Involved in NDT Industry,” ASNT.
  2. 2016, “Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A: Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing (2016),” ASNT.

101 Essential Elements Banner

Is this definition incomplete? You can help by contributing to it.

Share this Topic

Related Topics

Hydrostatic Testing In-line Inspection (ILI) Visual Inspection
Articles about Nondestructive Testing (NDT)
  • May/June 2017 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Geoff Clarkson at UTComp, Inc.

    Discover a new ultrasonic inspection approach that provides quantified mechanical integrity and conservative remaining service life information on fiberglass reinforced plastic equipment.

  • March/April 2017 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Fernando Vicente at ABB, and Laza Krstin at ABB

    Myths, challenges, and good practices related to process piping integrity management activities that help inspection and maintenance managers make the right decisions to develop cost-effective piping inspection plans without compromising the asset’s reliability or performance.

  • March/April 2017 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    Inspectioneering Founder and Chief Editor, Greg Alvarado, recently had the privilege to sit down with Clay White, Director of Mechanical Integrity for Phillips 66 (Downstream), to discuss the world of fixed equipment reliability in the refining and petrochemical industry.

  • March/April 2017 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Matt Ellinger at DNV GL

    The purpose of this article is to describe the various in-line inspection (ILI) technologies that are currently available to the market. The pros, cons, and applicability of each type of tool will be discussed in greater detail.

  • March/April 2017 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Ibrahim Kodssi at ADGAS

    Flare systems provide hydrocarbon facilities with safe and efficient discharge of relief and waste gases by controlled open flame burning. This article provides information on the selection, inspection, and maintenance of various types of flares.

  • Partner Content

    LOTIS utilizes laser profilometry to conduct internal steam reformer tube inspections. The data captured by LOTIS is exceptionally powerful when combined with our LifeQuest™ remaining life assessment capabilities, providing an integrated solution set for the process and syngas industries.

  • March/April 2017 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bob Lasser at Imperium, Inc.

    Ultrasonic phased array allow for a variety of structures to be inspected without radiation or taking equipment out of service. Codes are now being developed which allow phased array systems as an acceptable inspection technique for many procedures.

  • November/December 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Adam Gardner at PinnacleART

    Beyond the financial hits, undetected degradation from corrosion can also lead to critical safety risks. To effectively manage mechanical integrity, organizations need reliable methods of identifying the current states of corrosion occurring within their assets.

  • November/December 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Michael Turnquist at Quest Integrity Group

    This article exhibits how modern inspection methodologies combined with innovative computational analysis practices demonstrate the value of conducting fitness-for-service (FFS) assessments on sectional piping.

  • September/October 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Dr. Jake Davies at Permasense Ltd.

    Remote monitoring solutions are making it possible to avoid sending personnel into harsh environments without forgoing the essential data gathering that keeps assets safely operating.

  • September/October 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Kimberley Hayes at Olympus

    Detecting, quantifying, and sizing indications characterized as a “crack” in critical equipment have long been the global benchmark of asset integrity programs. Therefore, the increased precision that inspection programs obtain using advanced technologies can dynamically improve the overall assessment.

  • Partner Content

    It is difficult to cover all inspection applications with basic inspection procedures like radiography, ultrasonics, magnetic particle testing, and dye penetrant inspection. Owner-operators are finding that advanced NDE services such as guided-wave ultrasonics, AUT corrosion mapping, and eddy current testing are essential tools to keep their facilities operating safely and efficiently.

  • September/October 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Tim Haugen at Quest Integrity Group

    Although all ultrasonic smart pigging providers claim the ability to detect wall thinning and tube deformations to some degree, the inspection surface coverage, resolution, minimum wall thickness detection and reporting capabilities may vary drastically from one service provider to the next. Knowing your provider’s capabilities is crucial for ensuring the integrity of your assets, as one refinery recently discovered.

  • Blog
    October 27, 2016 By Hannah Boon at Inspectioneering, LLC

    ASNT’s 2016 Annual Conference took place this week in Long Beach, CA and was a special event celebrating “75 years of Success in Creating a Safer World.” The event brought together over 2,000 technicians, researchers, and other professionals from around the world to discuss ideas, best practices, new technologies, and lessons learned on nondestructive testing (NDT). With more than 200 exhibitors, there was certainly something to gain for everyone in the NDT community.

  • July/August 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Gene Larson at ECHO Ultrasonics

    This article details the basis for the lack of understanding about the potential for ultrasonic couplant auto-ignition and outlines an ALARP operating practice for mitigation.

  • July/August 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Brian Wilson at Thermo Fisher Scientific

    The instrumentation available to detect inadvertent material substitutions through positive material identification (PMI) has never been more available, portable or powerful than it is today. For one industrial services company, Tacten Industrial, Inc., embracing the latest technological advances in PMI while using rope access to conduct inspections has helped to transform their business. It has found the ideal formula for retroactive PMI that allows its team and its clients to rest assured that they’ve conducted their testing right – the first time.

  • July/August 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Sanjoy Das at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, and D. Mukherjee at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    The structural integrity of components is controlled by material properties, the presence of flaws, and levels of applied stress. Several factors such as temperature, type of loading, toughness, corrosion resistance, micro-structural stability, cost etc. dictate the suitable material for the desired application.

  • Partner Content

    Offshore platforms are exposed to some of the roughest conditions on earth and require regular attention to ensure they are structurally sound and safe for continued operation. With so many components and major joints at elevated locations, it is clear why a well-trained rope access technician can be an invaluable resource for offshore operators.

  • May/June 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Borja Lopez at Innerspec Technologies, Inc.

    In the last few years, electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) has come to prominence for its ability to quickly scan exposed pipelines for corrosion, cracks, and other defects using medium-range guided waves and without the requirement for liquid couplants.

  • May/June 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Dr. Yury Sokolov at SVT Engineering Consultants

    RBI and NII are designed to achieve significant cost savings and risk mitigation benefits over a piece of equipment’s lifetime in the long term (e.g. through greater reliability and inspection optimization). It is important to strategically consider new NDE technologies to obtain data of sufficient confidence to satisfy the requirements of the risk model.

  • March/April 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Mark Lessard at Thermo Fisher Scientific

    In numerous industries that require elemental and material testing, including the oil and gas, power generation, and petrochemical industries, positive material identification (PMI) is at the forefront of any operation. In fact, an increasing number of facilities are adopting a 100% PMI program to ensure that every metal component is made up of exactly the desired chemical composition.

  • March/April 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By André Lamarre at Olympus Scientific Solutions Americas

    This article highlights the evolution of corrosion monitoring from conventional ultrasonic to ultrasonic phased array manual and automated solutions and their use for both general purposes and complex applications.

  • March/April 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Mike Brown at Sentinel Integrity Solutions

    While there are many types of advanced NDT, this article will focus on the use of acoustics and electromagnetism as the bases for conducting examinations.

  • Partner Content

    AET is a powerful, non-intrusive inspection technique to verify the structural integrity of pressure vessels, spheres, high-temperature reactors and piping, coke drums, above-ground storage tanks, cryogenic storage tanks, and more.

  • March/April 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bruce A. Pellegrino at Sensor Networks, Inc., Dr. James N. Barshinger at Sensor Networks, Inc., and Michael Nugent at Equity Engineering Group

    While there are many methods for measuring equipment wall thickness, a predominant method used in the O&G and power generation industries is portable ultrasonic equipment. Ultrasonic testing is non-intrusive because it is applied to the outside of a pipe or vessel. It is an accurate and relatively low cost non-destructive examination (NDE) method to deploy in most situations.

  • January/February 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Dr. Jake Davies at Permasense Ltd.

    Fixed equipment in a refinery can be susceptible to corrosion from the process side, necessitating an inspection strategy to understand the condition of that equipment. Online measurement of pipe and pressure vessel wall thickness is made possible by installing wireless, semi-permanent thickness monitoring sensors.

  • Blog
    January 4, 2016 By Jeremiah Wooten at Inspectioneering, LLC.

    We at Inspectioneering would like to take this opportunity to thank all of our subscribers, followers, clients, and industry partners for a great 2015, and wish every member of the Inspectioneering community a happy and healthy 2016!

  • November/December 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Mike Brown at Sentinel Integrity Solutions

    It is often best to rely on properly trained and experienced inspection service providers to determine the proper method for any inspection project. Thus, inspection companies can suggest utilizing the most effective and efficient inspection techniques that will result in the highest probability of detection (POD), while potentially saving the facility operators’ time, effort, and capital.

  • November/December 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Mike Brown at Sentinel Integrity Solutions

    It is often best to rely on properly trained and experienced inspection service providers to determine the proper method for any inspection project. Thus, inspection companies can suggest utilizing the most effective and efficient inspection techniques that will result in the highest probability of detection (POD), while potentially saving the facility operators’ time, effort, and capital.

  • Partner Content

    Industrial Rope Access is a proven method of achieving a safe work position at elevated heights or areas that are difficult to access. When combined with advanced NDE technologies, rope access technicians can substantially reduce the cost of inspections and maintenance activities by virtually eliminating the need for fixed scaffolding.

  • November/December 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Borja Lopez at Innerspec Technologies, Inc.

    While they is very efficient and popular, liquid couplants used for ultrasonic inspection have some inherent limitations and disadvantages. An alternative method to using liquid couplant is Dry-Coupled Ultrasonic Testing (DCUT).

  • November/December 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Borja Lopez at Innerspec Technologies, Inc.

    While they is very efficient and popular, liquid couplants used for ultrasonic inspection have some inherent limitations and disadvantages. An alternative method to using liquid couplant is Dry-Coupled Ultrasonic Testing (DCUT).

  • November/December 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Once upon a time in the land of Ooze, there were two processing plants that boiled oil to make fuels and various other valuable petrochemical products. On one side of the river, rests a site called Perfecto Process Plant, while just across the river lies another plant called InZayna Zylum.

  • November/December 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Once upon a time in the land of Ooze, there were two processing plants that boiled oil to make fuels and various other valuable petrochemical products. On one side of the river, rests a site called Perfecto Process Plant, while just across the river lies another plant called InZayna Zylum.

  • September/October 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Shana Telesz at GE Measurement & Control

    While computed tomography (CT) scans are common and well-known as a critical evaluation tool in the medical field, they are becoming increasingly important in industrial settings. Recent automation, speed, and accuracy developments are driving the migration of CT technology onto the production floor.

  • Partner Content

    The Vanta handheld XRF is Olympus’ first full spectrum PMI analyzer that is IP65 rated and drop tested. The analyzer provides accurate, repeatable material chemistry and alloy grade matching in as little as 1–2 seconds. Operation is simple with an intuitive touch screen and swipe interface. Optional Wi-Fi, with the Olympus Scientific Cloud, provides seamless connectivity for efficient data and fleet management.

  • September/October 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Shana Telesz at GE Measurement & Control

    While computed tomography (CT) scans are common and well-known as a critical evaluation tool in the medical field, they are becoming increasingly important in industrial settings. Recent automation, speed, and accuracy developments are driving the migration of CT technology onto the production floor.

  • July/August 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Borja Lopez at Innerspec Technologies, Inc.

    Readers were previously introduced to some of the practical advantages of EMAT Ultrasonic Testing (UT) in the March/April 2013 and July/August 2013 issues of Inspectioneering Journal. In this article, I will cover the practical advantages of EMAT for in-service applications using Medium Range Ultrasonic Testing (MRUT).

  • July/August 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Robert Frater at Engineering & Inspection Services, LLC

    Refinery, petrochemical, and storage tank operators are responsible for properly cleaning facility tanks on a periodic maintenance basis, typically in 20 to 30 year increments. This article provides a suggested “checklist” of inspection activities to ensure safe and reliable operations after cleaning.

  • May/June 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Vibha Zaman, P.E. at Asset Optimization Consultants, and Peter Dsouza at Lloyd’s Register Energy Americas

    Direct assessment is often seen as the best option to verify pipeline integrity. But, it's particularly challenging due to the difficulty of pipeline access, as well as the limitations in available technology to perform subsea wall thickness inspections. Addressing these challenges requires action rather than reaction.

  • Blog
    June 1, 2015 By Nick Schmoyer at Inspectioneering

    Nondestructive Testing (NDT) makes up the majority of testing performed in our industry. There many different types of nondestructive testing techniques. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages; each can detect different types of flaws. Some are simple to perform, others are difficult. Some are used on several different types of equipment, others are more restricted.

  • Partner Content

    FFS assessment techniques are applicable to a wide range of damage types: LTA's, cracks, creep damage, dents, and more. These are very powerful analytical tools that often allow operators to not only keep the plant running, but to keep it running safely.

  • Blog
    May 26, 2015 By Nick Schmoyer at Inspectioneering

    These are interesting times when it comes to inspection technology in the process industries. With the advent of big data, mobile and wireless technology, and various other technological advances, we thought it would be a good idea to provide a recap on some of the new technologies that have been covered in Inspectioneering Journal.

  • Blog
    May 4, 2015

    Because radiography involves the use of large amounts ionizing radiation, safety is integral for the technician, the public, and the environment.

  • March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Andy Kates at Versa Integrity Group

    Rope access allows for a wide variety of work to be performed at high elevations or other hard to reach areas without the use of scaffolding or heavy equipment. It has evolved from techniques used in rock climbing and caving to become an extremely safe and cost effective industrial tool.

  • March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Andy Kates at Versa Integrity Group

    Rope access allows for a wide variety of work to be performed at high elevations or other hard to reach areas without the use of scaffolding or heavy equipment. It has evolved from techniques used in rock climbing and caving to become an extremely safe and cost effective industrial tool.

  • March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Jeremy Wimberly at Sentinel Integrity Solutions

    Refractory materials have significantly evolved during the past 15 years, testing technology is much more sophisticated, and the need for test technicians to be properly trained and experienced to use that technology is much more important than it has been in the past. Today, operators know that to ensure at least five to six year run times on processing units, production baffle testing and material prequalification and inspection processes and results are absolutely critical.

  • Partner Content

    AET is a powerful, non-intrusive inspection technique to verify the structural integrity of pressure vessels, spheres, high-temperature reactors and piping, coke drums, above-ground storage tanks, cryogenic storage tanks, and more.

  • March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By A.C. Gysbers at The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

    The tubes of heat exchangers (HX), whether for a shell and tube bundle or an airfin, are typically subject to some form of nondestructive examination (NDE) to try and quantify the remaining wall thicknesses and corrosion rates to help a plant to determine remaining life or the need for intervention via re-tubing or replacement of these thin wall components.

  • March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Connie LaMorte at EWI, and Jon Jennings at EWI

    Weld inspection using lasers is not new, but doing it 75 meters inside a pipe or streaming inspection data wirelessly is new. As laser technology has improved, more industries such as oil & gas are beginning to require laser inspection as part of their specifications. This non-contact method can help catch an unacceptable condition before it becomes too late to remedy the weld.

  • March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Nick Harwood at Aetos Group, and Aaron Cook at Aetos Group

    The ability to gain this unique perspective has recently become easier and safer with today’s technological advancements. This new technology comes in the form of a miniature flying machine, better known as a drone or small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS). These systems can be a modified hobby aircraft or highly reliable, military grade aerial robots.

  • Blog
    April 20, 2015

    We talk about heat exchangers quite a bit here on Inspectioneering, most recently in the January/February issue of the Journal. This is because heat exchangers are vital pieces of equipment in nearly every type of plant or facility.

  • March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Ana Benz at IRISNDT, Michael O. Nichols at Marathon Petroleum Company, and Bradley Baudier at Marathon Petroleum Company LP

    This article provides a discussion of a recent inspection performed at a U.S. refinery. Industry HF lines are experiencing piping failures in increasing numbers due to the presence of residual elements (such as Cr, Ni, and Cu among others) entrained within their carbon steel components.

  • Partner Content

    The Vanta handheld XRF is Olympus’ first full spectrum PMI analyzer that is IP65 rated and drop tested. The analyzer provides accurate, repeatable material chemistry and alloy grade matching in as little as 1–2 seconds. Operation is simple with an intuitive touch screen and swipe interface. Optional Wi-Fi, with the Olympus Scientific Cloud, provides seamless connectivity for efficient data and fleet management.

  • Blog
    March 30, 2015 By John Reynolds at Intertek

    The 2015 API Spring Refining and Equipment Standards Meeting will be held at the Seattle Sheraton during the week of April 13-16, with plenty of interesting meetings for Inspectioneers.  You do not need...

  • January/February 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Robert Schaffler at G2MT LLC, Angelique N. Lasseigne at G2MT, and Joshua E. Jackson at G2MT

    The future of inspection will be based on predictive and proactive technologies that effectively monitor material properties of structures and systems over their entire service life.

  • Blog
    February 2, 2015 By John Reynolds at Intertek

    The development of advanced NDE techniques/tools is one of the reasons the inspection trade has taken significant steps forward in the last couple decades; and the advancements appear to be accelerating.  One of the many ways to keep up with advancing NDE technology is to attend the semi-annual NDE task group meetings at the Spring and Fall API Refining and Equipment Standards Meetings.  In fact, that T/G is planning to document many of the advanced NDE...

  • November/December 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Dr. Noam Amir at AcousticEye

    Tube and shell heat exchangers are required to operate continuously in tough conditions for years, coping with thermal cycling, corrosive fluids on the tube and shell side, vibration and fouling of many different types, all collaborating towards degrading the performance of the unit and causing its eventual failure.

  • November/December 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Rajesh Bose at BP, and Terry M. Webb at BP

    The introduction of PAUT is a challenging effort initially, but can have a very positive impact on your first TAR and become a routine inspection for future TARs. When fully implemented, radiation safety boundaries can be reduced significantly or eliminated altogether.

  • Partner Content

    If you are developing a mechanical integrity program, or you would like to optimize your existing mechanical integrity program, do you have qualified MI consultants to meet your regulatory needs? If you already have a sound, defensible MI inspection system in place, do you have qualified and experienced personnel maintaining your program?

  • November/December 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Kelsey Hevner at Quest Integrity Group

    Steam reformers are critical assets for the successful operation of hydrogen, ammonia, and methanol plants. The steam reformer is also one of the most expensive assets in these facilities. Catalyst tubes inside the reformer are one of the most important and costly components.

  • Blog
    December 15, 2014 By Nick Schmoyer at Inspectioneering

    Over recent years large strides have been made in application, development, and utilization of Digital Detector Arrays (DDAs) in field radiography environments. The use of industrial digital radiography shows benefits of significantly reduced exposure times versus traditional film and computed radiography techniques.

  • September/October 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Amanda Nurse at BP, John Companik at BP, and Scott Vest at BP

    Maintaining mechanical integrity for aging power boilers can be challenging. This article provides a case study on how mitigating one damage mechanism led to the discovery of another, and how refinery engineers collaborated with industry experts to fully understand an unfamiliar damage mechanism and perform a fitness for service assessment for the safe and reliable operation of power boilers.

  • September/October 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Tim Hill at Quest Integrity Group

    For the past 30 years, infrared (IR) thermometry has been used to monitor tube metal temperatures in refining and chemical furnaces. Tracking temperature levels and variations determine performance capability limits and reliable tube life. However, the application of IR thermometry has often been characterized as highly operator dependent, which can result in less-than-optimal data accuracy as a consequence of poorly applied and interpreted results.

  • September/October 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Ana Benz at IRISNDT, Dr. Donald H. Timbres at D. & E. Consulting, Inc. , and Matt Stroh

    A small leak from top tubesheet-to-tube welds prompted further inspection of the 1¼Cr- ½Mo Ammonia Converter Boiler Feed Water (BFW) Exchanger during a planned shutdown. Further cracks were identified in the top channel to tubesheet butt weld that operated at 700 °F.

  • Partner Content

    It is difficult to cover all inspection applications with basic inspection procedures like radiography, ultrasonics, magnetic particle testing, and dye penetrant inspection. Owner-operators are finding that advanced NDE services such as guided-wave ultrasonics, AUT corrosion mapping, and eddy current testing are essential tools to keep their facilities operating safely and efficiently.

  • May/June 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Jeremiah Wooten at Inspectioneering, LLC.

    The following interview with Rich Roberts provides answers to some of the questions our readers have about small, specially designed pigs carrying NDE technologies that can inspect nearly every area of a tube from the coils interior surface.

  • March/April 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Ron Maurier at Quest Integrity Group, LLC, and Dan Revelle, Sr. at Quest Integrity Group, LLC

    New inline inspections and integrity management systems allow operators to understand the complexities and economics of terminals’ and station’s complex aging pipeline infrastructure.

  • Blog
    March 17, 2014 By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    A question was posed to me regarding guidelines for routine external inspection of spheres, including procedural approaches along with any nondestructive examination (NDE). Here are two approaches to inspection of spheres, and a mixture of the two, as a third.

  • January/February 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bob Lasser at Imperium, Inc., and Daniel Oehl at Imperium, Inc.

    Technicians inspecting oil & gas installations and petrochemical plants employ a wide variety of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques. A new technology has recently been developed that utilizes a real-time portable imaging device which has distinct advantages in finding internal corrosion.

  • November/December 2013 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Richard Mills at GE, John T. Iman at GE Oil and Gas Measurement & Controls-Inspection Technology, and Martin Sauerschnig at GE Oil and Gas Measurement and Control

    Over recent years large strides have been made in application, development, and utilization of Digital Detector Arrays (DDAs) in field radiography environments (an application previously limited to film and computed radiography [CR] techniques).

  • Partner Content

    LOTIS utilizes laser profilometry to conduct internal steam reformer tube inspections. The data captured by LOTIS is exceptionally powerful when combined with our LifeQuest™ remaining life assessment capabilities, providing an integrated solution set for the process and syngas industries.

  • November/December 2013 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Jan Verkooijen at TUV Rheinland Sonovation

    To understand the current non-destructive testing (NDT) world, it is perhaps a good idea to look back at things historically. By doing this, changes which have taken place become apparent, and very soon one can conclude that this is actually quite significant!

  • September/October 2013 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Sam Ternowchek at Mistras Group

    Maintaining the mechanical integrity of above ground storage tanks (AST’s) is the focal point of tank inspection programs. Performing internal inspections is an integral part of a tank integrity program, however, deciding when to take a tank out of service to perform an internal inspection is not an easy determination to make.

  • July/August 2013 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Borja Lopez at Innerspec Technologies, Inc.

    Non-contact ultrasonic testing with EMAT was formally introduced in part one of this series found in the March/April issue of Inspectioneering Journal. Readers were introduced to the practical advantages of EMAT Ultrasonic Testing.

  • May/June 2013 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Richard D. Roberts at Quest Integrity Group

    Refineries and chemical plants own and operate numerous process heaters (e.g. gas reformers, CCRs, etc.) as part of the standard assets throughout the facilities. Many heater coil configuration designs are flanged at both ends; however, there are also coil designs which contain common headers, linking the individual coil passes together at the inlet, outlet, or even at both ends in some cases.

  • March/April 2013 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Borja Lopez at Innerspec Technologies, Inc.

    This is the first in a series of three articles that will introduce Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) and its practical applications in the field of nondestructive testing (NDT). EMAT, or Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer, is an Ultrasonic Testing (UT) technique that generates the sound in the part inspected instead of the transducer.

  • Partner Content

    Facilities are facing increasing challenges, including justifying inflated budgets, managing contractor hours, ensuring regulatory compliance and qualifying the work being completed. To help facilities manage evolving inspection requirements, PinnacleART offers Fixed-Price Inspection (FPI), meaning we will develop and execute a comprehensive Risk-Based Inspection plan for one fixed-price. Yes, you read that right – one fixed-price.

  • January/February 2013 Inspectioneering Journal
    By A.C. Gysbers at The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

    This article is the third of a series of articles that will focus on one critical sub process within a PEIP that is key in managing the integrity of process piping: thickness monitoring programs for internal corrosion. These articles will discuss what constitutes an effective piping thickness monitoring process and will present several practices that may be new to some readers, but these practices have produced beneficial results in other major piping reliability programs.

  • November/December 2012 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Gary Penney at ADMA

    A unique technique for inspecting and cleaning the floors of an Above Ground Storage Tank (AST) emerged in the late 90’s based on In-Service Robotic Technology. The technology has come a long way since then, with new inspection and tank cleaning capabilities, greater operational efficiency, and a much broader user base.

  • September/October 2012 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Richard D. Roberts at Quest Integrity Group

    The refining industry has applied ultrasonic-based intelligent pigging to inspect serpentine coils in fired heaters since the 1990s. Today, thousands of serpentine coils in fired heaters are inspected annually at process facilities around the globe.

  • May/June 2012 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Jason Butz at SAIT Polytechnic

    Over the past 100 years, Nondestructive testing has made tremendous advances. New NDT methods have been introduced, while old "tried and true" methods continue to be improved. Although some NDT methods have drastically changed or "evolved" over time, the principle behind each method has remained the same; "To ensure the safety and integrity of manufactured items or goods."

  • March/April 2012 Inspectioneering Journal

    The new capabilities being developed through the Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Modeling and Simulation Center are expect- ed to reduce the time, cost and complexity of approaches used to develop and demonstrate NDE techniques to meet regulatory requirements and industry commitments.

  • Partner Content

    PinnacleART’s engineers and inspectors can help your facility define, prioritize and mitigate risks within your facility. Let our team build, implement and maintain a comprehensive mechanical integrity and RBI program for your pressure vessels, heat exchangers, towers, storage tanks, piping, pump casings, pressure relief valves, critical check valves and more.

  • January/February 2012 Inspectioneering Journal

    Concerns about the reliability of ultrasonic in-service inspections conducted at nuclear power plants led the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to draft a proposed qualification document in October 1984. Representatives from industry, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and NRC agreed that major improvements in the quality of in-service inspection were needed and that qualification of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems might be the answer.

  • January/February 2012 Inspectioneering Journal

    The design and fabrication of nuclear pressure vessels and piping components are governed by the rules of Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This Code, which aims to to ensure high levels of structural integrity for safe nuclear plant operation, requires radiographic examination of Class 1 and 2 pressure boundary butt welds to detect structural flaws introduced during welding.

  • November/December 2011 Inspectioneering Journal

    EPRI is investigating improved inspection technologies as part of a multi-faceted effort to enhance the understanding and management of underground piping and tanks at nuclear power plants. An ultrasonic immersion technique tested on an 8-inch-diameter, 60-foot pipe run containing both horizontal and vertical sections and six elbows successfully navigated all obstructions and detected pipe thinning.

  • July/August 2011 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Cliff Knight, P.E. at KnightHawk Engineering, Inc.

    Once again there is a crack found in the inlet tubesheet in your high-pressure high temperature heat exchanger. As head of the maintenance engineering effort, you know that plant management will ask you if it can run safely and reliability until the next scheduled shutdown.

  • May/June 2011 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Joey Poret at Chevron

    The reliability of equipment is determined by several factors including equipment condition, service history, failure modes, and maintenance. A subsection of equipment reliability is the ability to detect defects before they contribute to the failure of the equipment. In many cases, Nondestructive Testing (NDT) methods are utilized to detect and monitor these defects both in-service and during fabrication.

  • Partner Content

    Our proprietary furnace tube inspection system, FTIS™, is an ultrasonic inspection technology capable of rapid, automated fired heater coil inspection in refinery fired heaters. The data captured by our furnace tube inspection system is exceptionally powerful when combined with our LifeQuest™ remaining life assessment capabilities, providing an integrated solution set for refinery fired heaters in the refining and chemical industries.

  • January/February 2011 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Leo Vega at Stress Engineering Services, Inc.

    Describes a non-destructive sampling procedure which records and preserves the topography of a metallographic specimen as a negative relief on a plastic film (replica).

  • November/December 2010 Inspectioneering Journal

    Understanding, predicting, detecting and controlling high-temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA), have been elusive goals of materials engineers and scientists for over 70 years. The destruction of low alloy steel components exposed to hydrogen through the formation in the microstructure of high-pressure methane bubbles has led to many failures, fires, and sometimes deaths.

  • November/December 2010 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Sanjoy Das at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, B.K. Shah at BARC, and D. Mukherjee at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    Rapid industrial and technological growth throughout the world makes it necessary to develop new materials along with advanced Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Methods to ensure their quality without premature failures. The complex modern system, where materials are required to perform consistently with optimum efficiency, demands stringent quality control of engineered components.

  • September/October 2010 Inspectioneering Journal

    ASME has initiated development of a new personnel certification program for Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) personnel and Quality Control inspectors. The new program, ANDE, will include features consistent with other ASME Personnel Certification best practices.

  • July/August 2010 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Santhosh Lukose at Metalcare Inspection Services Inc.

    CUI (Corrosion Under Insulation) has always been a challenge for plant operators, quality assurance/reliability engineers and equipment owners. It is hard to identify the problem until it has become an emergency situation, often leading to unit shut downs or even the whole facility shut down for emergency repairs.

  • Partner Content

    Industrial Rope Access is a proven method of achieving a safe work position at elevated heights or areas that are difficult to access. When combined with advanced NDE technologies, rope access technicians can substantially reduce the cost of inspections and maintenance activities by virtually eliminating the need for fixed scaffolding.

  • July/August 2009 Inspectioneering Journal
    By M.Z. Umar at Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    We have been introduced to Infrared Thermography (IRT) since World War I and over the last decade the application of this technique has gained impetus. Today, the IRT application is widely used and accepted by many industries such as power generation plants, oil & gas industries, manufacturing factories, medicine, agriculture and biology etc. The technique has been recognized as a reliable tool for technical diagnostics in particular to condition monitoring and predictive maintenance.

  • March/April 2009 Inspectioneering Journal

    History has taught us that we should trust, but verify! Verification of alloys to ensure they are composed of the correct alloying elements has been the realm of handheld x-ray fluorescence for the past four decades. Industries ranging from petrochemical, aerospace and fabrication (which are mission critical for the correct material), to contract testing services, metals recycling applications and many more have employed portable XRF for alloy verification for over 40 years.

  • January/February 2009 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Dan Carnevale at Danatronics Corporation

    Ultrasonic thickness gages have progressed a long way since their early development in the 1960's. The first thickness gages were large and bulky although they used the same conventional longitudinal (compressional wave) techniques still in use today. Thickness gages are used in a wide variety of industries including refineries, power plants, process control, oil and gas, transportation, automotive and manufacturing to name a few.

  • November/December 2008 Inspectioneering Journal

    High energy piping (HEP) systems, main stream lines and hot reheat lines (typically low chrome molybdenum steels), are susceptible to creep damage can lead to leaks, and in extreme cases, catastrophic rupture. To ensure safe and reliable operation as plants age, utilities periodically inspect critical components, conventional inspection methods for HEP systems are radiographic (RT), ultrasonic (UT), field metallography and replication, and magnetic particle (MT) testing.

  • November/December 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Charles L. Foster at Pacific Gas & Electric

    A picture is worth a thousand words and thousands of dollars. There are many instances where in-service inspection reports are greatly enhanced by including photographic documentation. Using a conventional high quality 35 mm camera requires cumbersome amounts of equipment and consumes a lot of time. Developing film ASAP is an additional trip away from the inspection site and is an immediate necessity to insure picture quality before the area is no longer accessible. The inspector must then paste these acceptable photos onto report pages and make another trip to obtain color copies for the report.

  • Partner Content

    Turnarounds are costly in terms of lost production. In many respects a turnaround can be even more complicated than the initial construction of the facility, so a carefully designed plan will reduce overall costs. After execution, safety reviews, Corrosion Monitoring Program updates, MOC documentation, and PHA Revalidations are a must.

  • September/October 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Richard Green at Accurate Metallurgical Services

    You're at 32,000 feet in an airplane when you look out the window. You observe the wing of the jet moving up and down with the turbulence, like a child bending a coat hanger over and over again until the wire fractures into two pieces. You wonder how many times has this wing flexed. Such work causes fatigue. Fatigue is the science of things that grow tired.

  • July/August 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek, and W. David Wang at Shell Global Solutions

    This paper covers most of the common (and some not so common) types of NDE methods for heat exchanger (HX) tubular in-service inspections. In addition to noting some of the various advantages and limitations with these methods, the paper covers heat exchanger tubular inspection planning, data analysis needs, a consequence rating method for scheduling inspection and bundle renewals, tubular cleaning methods and tubular inspection technician qualifications.

  • July/August 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    The following is an interview with Scot Haines, (Corrosion Engineering Advisor). The IJ wishes to thank Scot and the Hess Corporation for taking the time to share with the "IJ" community.

  • May/June 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
    By M.Z. Umar at Malaysian Nuclear Agency, A.R. Hamzah at Malaysian Nuclear Agency, V. Vavilov at Tomsk Polytechnic University, and W. Swiderski at Military Institute of Armament Technology

    The concept of pulsed thermal nondestructive testing including the simulation of finite-size defects in solid materials, optimization of test procedures and advanced data treatment has been proposed. The experimental results have been obtained on a bakelite reference sample which contains bottom-hole defect surrogates of different depth and thickness.

  • March/April 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Vincent Summa at TechCorr Inspection & Engineering

    A unique technique for inspecting the floors of aboveground storage tank's (AST) emerged in the late 90's based on in-service robotic technology. The technology has come a long way since then, with new inspection and tank cleaning capabilities, greater operational efficiency and a much broader user base. The number of tanks inspected using in-service robotics has now exceeded the 700 mark.

  • Partner Content

    AIM systems should ensure that the your facility’s MI software is accurately performing the calculations needed to calculate minimum thickness, long/short term corrosion rates and remaining life used to predict future inspection intervals. They should evaluate your MI software’s basic design and corrosion monitoring variables.

  • January/February 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Sanjoy Das at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, P.R. Vaidya at BARC, and B.K. Shah at BARC

    Most common radiographic practices for circumferential weld testing are single wall and double wall techniques with certain variations in technique details. Different Codes deal with the number of exposures required and applicability of the technique for different combinations of pipe diameter and wall thickness. However, there are certain geometries where these conventional radiography techniques are not applicable, mainly because the weld is superimposed on some structural material inside the tube or pipe.

  • July/August 2007 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Paul Jackson at Plant Integrity Ltd., and Tat-Hean Gan at TWI Ltd.

    The integrity of pipelines is a natural concern for pipeline operators, and so the ability to detect corrosion, erosion and mechanical damage in pipes is therefore of significant interest. Traditional methods of detection, such as pigging and crawlers, have been used for many years to inspect pipelines with great success.

  • July/August 2007 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Sanjoy Das at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, P.R. Vaidya at BARC, and B.K. Shah at BARC

    Degradation of materials with time during service is a common phenomenon for all engineering components. Hence periodic inspection is required to ensure structural integrity and availability for service. During in-service inspection (ISI), wall thickness measurement of insulated and non-insulated pipe is a typical non-destructive evaluation technique in the oil & gas, chemical, petrochemical and nuclear industries. Ultrasonic testing is available for wall thickness measurement, but in some cases, it may not be the preferred technique. For ultrasonic testing, accuracy is dependent on the temperature of pipe, which may carry fluid at high temperature. Hence shutdown of the installation is required. Moreover for insulated pipe, insulation has to be removed before ultrasonic testing. The radiation technique is a complementary testing method which can be carried out without disturbing the installation. In this technique electromagnetic radiation passes through the object of inspection and is finally recorded in a recording medium. The recording medium is either an industrial X-ray film or a radiation detector. This paper is devoted to detection of pipe wall thinning by the radiation technique. Two different methods i.e. radiography and radiometry, are discussed with their relative merits and demerits.

  • May/June 2007 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Brian Beresford at TechCorr Inspection & Engineering

    Tube Inspection is a vital tool for the refining and petrochemical industries. Heat exchangers and condensers are designed to sustain 100% separation between the products in the tube (tube side) and the products in the vessel (shell side). A leaking tube can cause not only a significant impact to production, it can cause major environmental issues and the potential for loss of life.

  • May/June 2006 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Chris Ablitt at TWI, and Julian Speck at TWI Ltd.

    On 11 December 2005, fuel at the Buncefield storage ter- minal near London exploded. The incident and immediate aftermath were described in the March-April 2006 edition of IJ. The investigation into the disaster began at the end of January. Three progress reports have since been published. The first progress report dealt with the response to the incident, and the second with the environmental impact of the explosion.

  • Partner Content

    Offshore platforms are exposed to some of the roughest conditions on earth and require regular attention to ensure they are structurally sound and safe for continued operation. With so many components and major joints at elevated locations, it is clear why a well-trained rope access technician can be an invaluable resource for offshore operators.

  • May/June 2006 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Paul Marks at NDT Training and Placement Center

    The term "certification" has been used and abused over the decades since the 1960's when American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) published its first Recommended Practice, SNT-TC-1A, 2001, our comments are meant to clear up an de-mystify the issue of certification within the minds of users of NDT services in this country. This article goes to the heart of the question, "What does 'certified Level 1 or II NDT technician' really mean?"

  • May/June 2006 Inspectioneering Journal

    A new national research centre located in Port Talbot, Wales, is set to play a critical role in ensuring the future safety of materials and components. The Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Validation Centre was officially opened on 6 February 2006 by The Rt Hon Alun Michael, Minister of State for Industry and the Regions, and Andrew Davies, Welsh Assembly Government Minister for Economic Development and Transport.

  • March/April 2006 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Paul Marks at NDT Training and Placement Center

    Ever think there might be a better way to select an NDT services vendor other than fee simple bidding. Sure, you have - especially after getting knee deep into an important project only to discover that the low bidder for NDT services was unable to hold up his end of the contract. What a shame! Big bucks waiting on a dime's worth of service that could not be delivered either on time or with quality. In such an instance, the money "saved" by getting the "best price" goes up in smoke.

  • November/December 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Paul Marks at NDT Training and Placement Center

    Have you ever thought of a more definitive way to express what we need today from people in all walks of life than INTEGRITY? As engineers and inspectors, have you stopped to think of how much you depend on the integrity of those charged with providing the information on which you base your decisions.

  • November/December 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Richard D. Roberts at Quest Integrity Group, and John Brightling at Johnson Matthey Catalyst

    Part 1 in this 2 parts series laid the technical foundation for the methodology and technology. Part 2 will now demonstrate both through actual applications.

  • Partner Content

    The problem is, you don’t. With the out of date procedures that traditional inspection contractors use, data is usually invalid by the time it reaches your system. You rely on this data to make critical decisions regarding integrity concerns, and with the exorbitant amount of money you pay for the data, it should be accurate and delivered in real-time.

  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By M.Z. Umar at Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Nassir B. Ibrahim, Dr, Ab., and Razak B. Hamzah at Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT)

    Is calibration of NDT or any other equipment necessary? The answer is certainly Yes! But a question still arises. Why? Because in the case of NDT it is required by national and international standards. Many NDT standards require that a system of periodic calibration and maintenance must exist for any facility that performs nondestructive testing. For instance, ASTM E-1212 Section 9.2.2 mentions that all measuring and test equipment shall be calibrated and controlled to insure accuracy of measurement of products and processes to a specified requirement. So why would we even need to ask the question? Because many institutes and research organizations do not have periodic calibration and maintenance programs and are not required to have such programs except for safety related work!

  • July/August 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Julian Speck at TWI Ltd., and Bryan Kenzie at TWI

    The ultrasonic Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) technique was developed for the UK nuclear industry during the 1970s to provide a method for measuring the height of planar flaws. TOFD is now generally recognized as the most accurate ultrasonic technique for measuring the height of embedded planar flaws (eg. Cracks, lack of fusion, etc.) that lies perpendicular to the surface.

  • July/August 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Sanjoy Das at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, and B.K. Shah at BARC

    Radiography is the most widely used volumetric examination technique for non-destructive evaluation of components, as it offers the advantage of direct viewing of the flaw image, judging the type of flaw and provides a permanent record. Flaw characterization methods, described by size, shape & Location, require classification of the type or nature of flaw, position of flaw and flaw severity. Accurate sizing of the flaw to assess its severity is important. ISO Guide 25 "General Requirements for the Competence of Calibration and Testing Laboratories" (1990), requires one to specify the uncertainty of each measurement. In radiography there are several factors which contributes to uncertainty for quantitive measurement. This paper describes a study undertaken to calculate the uncertainty in flaw sizing and to estimate the real size of discontinuities observed in radiography.

  • July/August 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Richard D. Roberts at Quest Integrity Group, and John Brightling at Johnson Matthey Catalyst

    Having the ability to substantially extend tube life in Steam Reformers is essential in maximizing use of capital investments in Methanol, Hydrogen, and Ammonia Plants. With the price of nickel at an all time high, the cost of installing a single reformer tube upwards $20,000 USD.However, in today's highly competitive markets the effect of the unplanned downtime in reducing the plant on-stream factor is far greater than the installed cost of a single reformer tube.

  • May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bob Stakenborghs, P.E. at Evisive Inc.

    The figures included in this article provide visual evidence of the effectiveness of the microwave NDE technique. Note the clarity of the internal defects and structures of interest apparent in all of the scans.

  • Partner Content

    Properly anticipating and finding the damage in your facility is no small task, and spending millions of dollars on inspection may not be getting you anywhere if it’s not the right inspection processes. PinnacleART can use industry best practice models and corrosion expertise to proactively identify damage types, locations and magnitudes so you can ensure you’re performing the right inspections at the right times. Visit us at pinnacleart.com to learn more.

  • March/April 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    We are happy to announce the 10-year anniversary of the inaugural issue of the Inspectioneering Journal!

  • March/April 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bob Stakenborghs, P.E. at Evisive Inc.

    Once the microwave inspection method was determined to be capable of providing reliable and meaningful inspection results for defects located on the exterior, interior, and interior surfaces of non-metallic components, potential industry applications were identified. Upon investigation, these applications were identified. Upon investigation, these applications proved to be numerous and varied in nature. This is the result of an apparent lack of reliable inspection techniques for many non-metallic components that are rapidly becoming materials of choice in many industries.

  • January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Julian Speck at TWI Ltd., and Brigdet Hayes at TWI

    The number of FFS assessments carried out by inspection engineers is expected to increase in the future, as operators "sweat" their ageing process equipment. The parameters required for assessments can be quite complex and interdependent. Therefore, a multidisciplinary peer review (involving stress analysts, NDE experts and materials engineers) is often necessary before acting on the findings of the even the most regular FFS assessment. Operators and inspection engineers using FFS assessments would do well to learn from previous failures. Author:

  • January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Hegeon Kwun at Southwest Research Institute, and Glenn Light at Southwest Research Institute

    Nearly ten years ago the magnetostrictive sensor (MsS) technology was reported in this journal (July/August 1996 Issue, Volume 2 Issue 4) as a method to detect corrosion in insulated piping. At that time, the MsS Technology consisted primarily of the longitudinal guided wave mode introduced into the pipe with a coil wrapped around the steel pipe with a coil wrapped around the steel pipe and a number of large magnets setting up an axially oriented magnetic baising field in the area of the coil. The longitudinal mode worked well for dry, unfilled pipe. However, in liquid filled pipes, the longitudinal mode didn't work well because it interacts with the liquid, producing extraneous signals that, in turn, cause difficulty in analyzing data.

  • January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bob Stakenborghs, P.E. at Evisive Inc.

    Several years ago, a need was identified to develop an improved nondestructive inspection method to volumetrically inspect dielectric materials. Specifically, an inspection method for detecting defects in rubber expansion joints was needed to assist in preventing leeks in large electric power plant steam condensers. In response to this demand, a microwave based inspection technique was developed and patented by Evisive, Inc. Once the technique was developed and tested, it was found to be a powerful NDE technique that had uses for many dielectric materials, the technique can also be successfully used on composite materials containing conductive components but whose construction makes them overall nonconductors or bulk dielectrics, for example, carbon filter composites.

  • Partner Content

    Auto-refrigeration can impose low temperatures onto process vessels and piping causing them to be at risk of brittle fracture, the sudden break-before leak phenomena that can result in catastrophic rupture of the equipment.

  • November/December 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Richard D. Roberts at Quest Integrity Group

    Reliable "intelligent pig technology" is now readily available to the refining industry which can provide quick / comprehensive inspection to both "convection" and "radiant" sections in process furnace piping coils. Both tabular data formats along with 2D / 3D high-resolution color graphics of the test results are immediately produced on site showing tube/pipe wall thinning, bulging, swelling, and ovality.

  • September/October 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Julian Speck at TWI Ltd., and Peter Mudge at Pi Ltd.

    The impetus for the development of LRUT is that ultrasonic thickness checks for corrosion, erosion, etc. are localised, in that they only measure the thickness of the area under the UT transducer.

  • September/October 2004 Inspectioneering Journal

    Zetec acquired Power Generation Business assets located in the R/D Tech facilities primarily in Quebec, Charlotte, North Carolina, and Deep River, Ontario, Canada. Assets include the rights to current and planned products developed by the Power Generation Business. The transaction also involves the transfer of approximately 100 Power Generation Business employees globally.

  • September/October 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    Exactly two years ago, an interview with John Nyholt appeared in the “IJ”. New ground will be covered in this interchange. We at the IJ thought it might be valuable to spend some time chatting about his background, challenges he has faced recently and what he feels are some of the biggest challenges ahead for the Inspectioneering® community.

  • September/October 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    Exactly two years ago, an interview with John Nyholt appeared in the “IJ”. New ground will be covered in this interchange. We at the IJ thought it might be valuable to spend some time chatting about his background, challenges he has faced recently and what he feels are some of the biggest challenges ahead for the Inspectioneering® community.

  • Partner Content

    InVista is a lightweight, hand-held ultrasonic in-line inspection tool (intelligent pig) capable of detecting pipeline wall loss and corrosion in unpiggable or difficult-to-inspect pipelines. The pipeline geometry inspection data captured by the InVista tool is exceptionally powerful when combined with the LifeQuest™ Pipeline fitness-for-service capabilities, providing an integrated solution set for the pipeline industry.

  • March/April 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Dr. Nand K. Gupta at Omega International Technology, Inc.

    During the past two years, a new High Resolution Gamma Ray Detector Array System to detect and measure small corrosion pits in real-time in the inservice piping in process industries, has been in development. This High Resolution Gamma Ray Detector Array can be substituted in place of the standard detector array in our ThruVU (TVU) system. The first High Resolution detector array has a total width of 1.00" and consists of 76 channels with 0.013" detector pitch. On the other hand, the detector pitch is 0.130" in the standard TVU detector array. So, the new High Resolution detector array can potentially provide a 10x better spatial resolution compared to the TVU standard detector array.

  • September/October 2002 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    John has primary responsibility for NDE consulting and troubleshooting for BP around the world in the refining, chemical and gas processing industries. We at the IJ thought it might be valuable to spend some time chatting about his background, challenges he has faced recently and what he feels are some of the biggest challenges ahead for the Inspectioneering community.

  • May/June 2002 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal, and C.P. Hsiao

    We have discussed various factors that can affect the reliability of NDE techniques (i.e., probability of detection - POD and sizing accuracy) in Part 1. In general, it is difficult to quantify these uncertainties. In fact, it is impossible to fully quantify the uncertainties in NDE results. However, one can achieve a higher level of reliability by reducing or minimizing the uncertainties. We will discuss some of the steps one can take to minimize the uncertainties in NDE results. By minimizing or reducing the uncertainties in NDE results, FFS assessments can be less conservative, and thus provide more margin to the serviceability of the equipment.

  • January/February 2002 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal, and C.P. Hsiao

    Safety, environmental and economic pressures are motivating process industry (e.g. refineries & petrochemical plants) operators to consistently improve equipment reliability performance, optimize expenses and more accurately target resources where they will provide the greatest benefit. These improvements yield improved return on net assets (e.g. pressure vessels, piping and tanks). Companies that can better assure that decisions about repairs or replacement of equipment are more accurately arrived at are heading in the right direction. In order to equip operators with tools for better decision making, the American Petroleum Institute, within the last few years, has introduced Recommended Practice (RP) 579 Fitness for Service (FFS), which had been in development for several preceding years. The latest versions of the widely used inspection codes; API 510 (pressure vessels), API 570 (piping) and API 653 (above ground storage tanks) now reference this RP as a tool for determining the fitness for service of these types of equipment when corrosion, cracking, or other forms of deterioration are found and in the case of re-rating equipment.

  • November/December 2001 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    A typical risk based inspection (RBI) analysis should include past inspection results, tempered by confidence in those results. For example, API's (American Petroleum Institute) RBI methodology and software when calculating the likelihood of failure side of the risk equation asks for past inspection histories. This includes dates of past inspections for potential damage mechanisms, the effectiveness of those inspection techniques to find the anticipated damage and amounts of coverage. Via this logic, the program constructs a factor to represent the probable damage population scatter band and multiplies this times the entered corrosion rates, cracking susceptibilities or bulk damage rates.

  • September/October 2001 Inspectioneering Journal
    By W. David Wang at Shell Global Solutions

    Hydrogen-induced cracking is a damage mechanism commonly observed in the petroleum refining industry [1, 2]. The damage appears as laminar cracks and blisters, which can link up in the through-wall direction to form stepwise cracking.

  • July/August 2001 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    Inspectioneering caught up with Dave Wang at the American Petroleum Institute’s (API) Spring 2001 Refining meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. We spent some time, near the pool at a break between meetings, discussing Dave’s background, experiences and the future of NDE from his perspective.

  • May/June 2001 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Russel T. Mack at National Association of Inspection Companies (NAIC)

    In a previous edition of Inspectioneering Journal, we alerted readers to a proposal to the Texas PE Board that would require NDT inspector certification according to CP-189 (instead of SNT-TC-1A)-which would effectively eliminate limited-scope certifications. The proposal would also require that every inspection service company have on full-time staff-a registered PE who is also an ASNT-certified NDT Level-III.

  • January/February 2001 Inspectioneering Journal

    The objective of this joint industry project is to develop and commercialize a non-intrusive system for mapping the thickness of aboveground storage tank (AST) bottoms using Lamb wave tomography.

  • January/February 2001 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Paul K. Davidson at WIS, Inc., David Silverling at Tubular Ultrasound, L.P., and Jason Hicks at Tubular Ultrasound, L.P.

    This article describes a new inspection technology for rapid, on-stream,quantitative examinations of piping under support areas. This portable production system has been in commercial operation in the major U.S. Gulf Coast refineries for the past two years.

  • November/December 2000 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Paul Marks at NDT Training and Placement Center

    I was certified within days of my entry into the business. Inside three months, I had performed as lead technician on several refinery inspection projects, as well as skid mounted oil and gas compressor units. I had also performed ultrasonic weld inspection of the complex welds used months, I was supervising the operations of that company (because the manager was primarily involved in sales). My progress was meteoric! What a business! How was it that a rookie could progress so rapidly with this new employer? Did he have the NDT education credentials of Robert C. McMaster? Was it his background in science? The answer to all of these is the same. No! I struggled mightily to get through high school level geometry and biology. One year at a state university and three years of night school had not generated a degree. What I did have was what everybody else seemed to have - average intelligence, a hunger to learn, and a need to work a lot of overtime. (Pay was meager, but overtime was plentiful.)

  • September/October 2000 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Russel T. Mack at National Association of Inspection Companies (NAIC)

    In the petrochemical industry, we have noticed that many separate organizations are attempting to improve the quality of engineering and inspection. For example, many readers are familiar with the efforts of ASME (Post-Construction Code Requirements for Qualification & Certification of NDE Personnel), ASNT (ACCP NDT Central Certification Program), AWS/TWI (CSWIP NDT certification program), API (initiative for certification of NDT UT shear-wave weld inspectors), and NACE (Corrosion Engineering Personnel Qualification & Certification).

  • September/October 2000 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Russel T. Mack at National Association of Inspection Companies (NAIC)

    In part 1 of this article we covered the importance of quality assurance of UT data, that is, understanding for each particular application, the accuracy required of the UT data, and new ways/graphical program to analyze and show the interrelationships of data by location for trending. Part 1 article areas then included: -UT Data Reporting and Evaluation -Imaging UT Data Evaluating the Quality of Static UT Data -Visual Trending of UT data -Mathematical Trending of UT Data Now, in Part 2, we will cover data quality issue statistics and possible sources of poor quality UT data.

  • July/August 2000 Inspectioneering Journal

    The American Paper Institute Recovery Boiler Reference Manual Volume 1, October 1979, indicates that the two main goals of conducting ultrasonic thickness (UT) inspections are to determine (1) the current tube wall thickness and (2) the rate of tube wall metal wastage. The analysis of tens of thousands of UT readings from black liquor recovery boilers is an intimidating and time-consuming task. Problem areas in the boiler are easily identified and many engineering hours of labor are saved. The graphical prensentation permits the quality (accuracy and consistency) of the UT data to be carefully examined.

  • March/April 2000 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Paul Marks at NDT Training and Placement Center

    Do You Know All You Need To Know About The People Who Perform Your NDT? Could the following scenario be played out in your plant, on your equipment, on your watch? The year is 1968. The time is 3 PM on Friday. Two fairly young men are traveling east-bound on I-10 from Houston, Texas to "Off-Shore", Louisiana. The trip will take about 8 hours, six by car and two by boat. The new hire's supervisor / trainer, hands him a thin booklet that provides a brief description of the nondestructive testing method known as ultrasonics. The last few pages of the book contain glossary terms relating to the test method. The supervisor tells the trainee that he should study the material, especially the glossary terms, while they make the trip to "Off-Shore".

  • January/February 2000 Inspectioneering Journal

    This article covers the use of permanently attached ultrasonic transducers for inspection and process plant equipment condition monitoring while in service.

  • September/October 1999 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    This is part three of a three part article for the IJ describing some of the advanced on-stream inspection (OSI) methods available for use in inspection of pressure equipment in the petroleum and petrochemical industry. These methods can be used, under the right circumstances, to supplement or in lieu of invasive and turnaround inspections, usually at much lower cost. Cost savings associated with using OSI techniques in lieu of internal inspection may include lower total inspection costs, lower turnaround costs, avoiding lost production opportunities, and avoiding vessel cleaning and decontamination costs. On-stream inspection also avoids the safety hazards associated with confined space entry of vessels. However, to achieve these savings and benefits, and still maintain high levels of pressure equipment integrity, the owner-user must understand the technologies in order to intelligently select, apply and interpret the results of these nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods.

  • May/June 1999 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek, and Mark Bell at Ethos Mechanical Integrity Solutions

    This three-part article describes some of the advanced on-stream inspection (OSI) methods available for use in inspection of pressure equipment in the petroleum and petrochemical industry. These methods can be used, under the right circumstances, to supplement or in lieu of invasive and turnaround inspections, usually at much lower cost. Cost savings associated with using OSI techniques in lieu of internal inspections may include lower total inspection costs, lower turnaround costs, avoiding lost production opportunities, and avoiding vessel cleaning and decontamination costs. On-stream inspection also avoid the safety hazards associated with confined space entry of vessels. However, to achieve these savings and benefits, and still maintain high levels of pressure equipment integrity, the owner-user must understand the technologies in order to intelligently select, apply and interpret the results of these nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods.

  • May/June 1999 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Richard L. Lopushanksy at Southwest Research Institute

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed an innovative method for rapid screening of heat exchanger tubing using Guided Wave technology. This screening method can lead to an improvement in heat exchanger reliability and a reduction in the cost of operations.

  • March/April 1999 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Some Middle Eastern and European operators are now using AE successfully to screen tanks for internal inspection by listening for active tank bottom corrosion, and then grading the tank as high, medium or low need for internal inspection.

  • September/October 1998 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bruce A. Pellegrino at Sensor Networks, Inc.

    Remote visual testing (RVT) of large surface areas (1 sq. meter) associated with vessel inspection requires a unique hardware approach compared to that of commercially-available borescopes, fiberscopes, and video borescopes. Faced with stricter OSHA regulations and the increased global competitiveness of today's marketplace, process facilities have looked toward a technical solution, including man-less entry into vessels, pressure vessels, and tanks for their internal inspections. A unitized pan, tilt, light, color, zoom video inspection system was developed for use in confined space and hazardous area locations associated with these components.

  • July/August 1998 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Constance Reichert at Edison Welding Institute

    Visual inspection is the most common nondestructive testing method. For critical applications, machine vision technology provides advantages over visual inspection.

  • July/August 1998 Inspectioneering Journal

    The debate about advantages and drawbacks of the application of the TOFD (time of flight diffraction) approach for ultrasonic weld inspection should not forget the original reasons for its introduction in the 1960s. The major advantage at that time had been the better crack detection in comparison to x-ray techniques, especially in view of an increased use of steels and welding technologies with a the presence of diverse cracking phenomena (e.g. cold cracking, transverse cracks etc.).

  • May/June 1998 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Paul K. Davidson at WIS, Inc.

    During the past year, WIS has presented a number of papers about EMATs. The type of discussions that have followed the presentations has surprised us. The overall view of industry to EMATs has been: "Aren't EMATs still just a good lab tool? There aren't any commercial applications out there."

  • March/April 1998 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Richard D. Roberts at Quest Integrity Group, and Tim Cowling

    Furnace tubes in the petrochemical and refining industries lengths' can exceed 2,000 ft., often with multiple serpentine bends. This can make them extremely difficult to inspect using conventional NDE methods. The following inspection tool (FTIS) employs the combined capabilities of high-speed laser and advanced ultrasonic wall thickness measurements and is propelled through the piping via a column of clean water which provides a path for the laser beam, and the coupling for the ultrasonic signals.

  • January/February 1998 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Mark Badrick at Bahrain Petroleum Company

    The use of Infrared Thermal Imagers, particularly for temperature measurement within an operating furnace environment, is reliant on the accurate evaluation of specific parameters, which the pyrometer requires in order to produce true temperature measurements.

  • November/December 1997 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Dave Palmbach at DBA Systems, Inc.

    Radiographic film provides an inexpensive method of ensuring the quality and structural integrity of construction over time. Much of today's analysis being performed with Non Destructive Test (NDT) radiographic film is done visually using light boxes.

  • November/December 1997 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Emery Lendvai-Lintner at Exxon Research and Engineering Co.

    This is an update on NDE research and development activities previously reported on in the Inspectioneering Journal. Companies wishing to join/contribute to these groups' activities, provide input and direction, and reap the benefits should contact the author or the Inspectioneering Journal. You will be directed to the respective joint industry project coordinator.

  • September/October 1997 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    This is the fourth in a series of articles on piping inspection that I'm writing for the Journal. One of the previous ones dealt with improving thickness data taking accuracy with digital ultrasonic methods. This article is a "sister article" that deals with improving the accuracy of profile radiographic inspection techniques, also called isotope radiography, wall shots, or tangential radiographic inspection.

  • January/February 1997 Inspectioneering Journal

    AWS, in conjunction with the Edison Welding Institute and The Welding Institute, are offering a program for the certification of NDE operators. The certification follows the operators. Areas for certification are PT (penetrant testing), MT (magnetic particle testing), UT (ultrasonic testing), and RI (radiographic interpretation).

  • January/February 1997 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Dennis Smythe at Fluor Daniel, Inc., and Cathy Shargay at Fluor Daniel, Inc.

    Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EP&C) companies have a monumental task to maintain accurate NDE records on major new construction projects. Fluor Daniel has developed and put in use over the last several years a database program for tracking pipe welds and the NDE associated with them.

  • November/December 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Shaun W. Lawson at Mechatronic Systems and Robotics Research Group, University of Surrey

    The basic approach to the inspection and repair procedure for welding has barely altered for three decades. The normal practice has continued to be to inspect a weld only after the welding programme is complete. Thus by the time a defect is detected, considerable time and money has been spent on completing the welding of a rejectable component. Furthermore, a large number of additional weld runs will generally have been deposited over the defect, thus increasing the cost of repair and decreasing the quality of the component.

  • September/October 1996 Inspectioneering Journal

    This article is a practical review of Nondestructive Examination (NDE) methods that can be used to find Erosion/Corrosion (E/C) and/or Corrosion wear in fossil fuel power piping systems. The article is based on experience with PG&E's E/C detection program for fossil fuel power plants.

  • July/August 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Hegeon Kwun at Southwest Research Institute, and Richard L. Lopushanksy at Southwest Research Institute

    Engineers and scientists at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas, may have found a cost-effective and practical method of detecting ID and OD corrosion of insulated piping systems.

  • March/April 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    We all have a responsibility to perform the best job we can for our employers/customers. That is why I am sharing my thoughts with you, my clients, the Inspectioneering Journal readers. In 12 years of being on the owner/user side of the fence, as a chief chemist for NL (National Lead) Industries and a senior member of the materials engineering and corrosion staff for Monsanto Chemical Company, combined with another 9 years in the role of marketing, consulting and sales of NDE and engineering services to the process sectors, I have seen where we often become our own worst enemy. Yes, I mean either as the service provider or the client.

  • January/February 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Dr. G. Fulop at Maxtech International, Inc.

    A recent in-depth analysis of nondestructive Testing Services Markets indicates that after very slow overall growth in 1993 and 1994, these markets have resumed growing in 1995. The combined U.S. and Canadian market for nondestructive testing services reached $627 million in 1995 and is expected to grow to $731 million by 1999. The strongest growth is anticipated in the Chemical/Petrochemical and "Other" industries segments.

  • January/February 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Jim Yukes at Russell Technologies, Inc.

    The Remote Field Electromagnetic Technique, often referred to as RFEC (remote field eddy current), is used to identify corrosion in ferromagnetic tubes. Available for less than ten years, many people are not familiar with its applications.

  • November/December 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    In our inspection organizations, we have identified a number of critical success factors (CSF's) which are vitally important if we are to achieve the level of pressure equipment reliability and integrity to which we aspire. One of our CSF's is the level of service provided to our refineries and chemical plant sites by our Nondestructive Examination Technical Direction Team.

  • November/December 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal, and Dr. W. David Wang at Shell Oil Products Company

    Nelson Curve changes in the late 1980's provided cause for Shell Oil Company to look at more reliable NDE non-destructive evaluation methods for assessment of materials/equipment in high temperature hydrogen service. The primary change motivating Shell was the lowering of the C-0.5 Mo steel Nelson Curve to the carbon steel level.

  • September/October 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Dr. Nand K. Gupta at Omega International Technology, Inc.

    In May 1995, Omega International Technology, Inc., began testing a new system to measure pipe wall thicknesses using digital radiography (RT) scanning. This new system has the potential for being faster, less labor intensive, and shown improved accuracy over traditional ultrasound testing, and at a lower cost. Perhaps best of all, scanning can be performed while the pipe is in service, insulation in place.

  • September/October 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
    By E.B. Lendvai-Lintner at Exxon Research and Engineering Company, and H.A. Wolf at Exxon Research and Engineering Company

    PERF (Petroleum Environmental Research Forum), a mechanism used successfully for joint industry environmental projects, is being considered for NDE related research. Many of the same companies using the approach for environmental challenges make up the group processing work in the field of mechanical integrity related NDE.

  • September/October 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Nancy M. Carlson at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Richard E. Rice at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is leading an industry/university/national laboratory team to develop two NDE technologies that will economically extend refinery plant lifetime while continuing to protect the public, the environment, and plant personnel. If successful, the first, high-temperature flaw detection and sizing, will allow inspection of critical structural components on-line, increasing the time of safe operation.

  • September/October 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Susan W. Borenstein at Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., and George J. Licina at Structural Integrity Associates, Inc.

    Low-energy piping system failures in power-generating facilities are often the result of fouling and corrosion. These degradation mechanisms can affect the capacity of piping for fluid-carrying, the heat transfer rates of heat exchangers, and the structural integrity of piping systems. Steels are not immune to pitting, underdeposit corrosion, and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Once advanced inspection technique, using an enhanced ultrasonic inspection system coupled with special imaging software, has demonstrated the capability to accurately image and size closed tunneling pits that often form in austenitic stainless steel weldments due to MIC.

  • July/August 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Dr. John Bowker at Metals Technology Laboratories, CANMET, and Russell Orr at Metals Technologies Laboratories, CANMET

    Petrochemical and energy utility industries require a methodology which will allow them and the governing regulatory authorities to make technical and financially sound decisions for the repair or replacement of pressure vessels which suffer damage during service.

  • May/June 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
    By James L. Doyle at Quest Integrated, Inc.

    Over the past ten years a broad family of laser-based nondestructive testing systems has been in development. These tools are used for the inspection and measurement of internal surfaces of tubes ranging in size from 5/8-inch to 3-inches in diameter.

  • May/June 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bob Browne at ERA Technology

    For reason of economy, the hot reheat pipework in many US power plants is fabricated from seam-welded low chrome-moly carbon steel spools. Unlike girth butt welds, where the critical weldment microstructures can off-load stress to the stronger parent material, seam welds are subject to the full pressure hoop stress. A number of failures have occurred, some of which have been evidenced by fast fracture over extended lengths of the seam weld with a massive and violent steam release.

  • March/April 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Charles L. Foster at Pacific Gas & Electric

    High energy piping (HEP) systems, main steam lines and hot reheat lines (typically low chrome molydbdenum steels), are susceptible to creep damage. Such damage can lead to leaks, and in extreme cases, catastrophic failure.

    Companies
    Videos related to Nondestructive Testing (NDT)
      White Papers related to Nondestructive Testing (NDT)
        Downloads & Resources related to Nondestructive Testing (NDT)
          Events related to Nondestructive Testing (NDT)
          • August 28 2017
            Location: Sulphur, Louisiana, United States
            Hosted By: Versa Integrity Group
            Dates: August 28, 2017
            Seminars & Workshops Training Courses
          • Oct 30 - Nov 2 2017
            Location: Nashville, Tennessee, United States
            Hosted By: American Society of Nondestructive Testing
            Dates: October 30, 2017 - November 2, 2017
            Conferences Exhibitions & Trade Shows
          • November 8 2017
            Location: Sulphur, Louisiana, United States
            Hosted By: Versa Integrity Group
            Dates: November 8, 2017
            Seminars & Workshops Training Courses
            News related to Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

              Inspectioneering Journal

              Explore over 20 years of articles written by our team of subject matter experts.

              Company Directory

              Find relevant products, services, and technologies.

              Job Postings

              Discover job opportunities that match your skillset.

              Case Studies

              Learn from the experience of others in the industry.

              Event Calendar

              Find upcoming conferences, training sessions, online events, and more.

              Industry News

              Stay up-to-date with the latest inspection and asset integrity management news.

              Blog

              Read short articles and insights authored by industry experts.

              Acronyms

              Commonly used asset integrity management and inspection acronyms.

              Asset Intelligence Reports

              Download brief primers on various asset integrity management topics.

              Videos

              Watch educational and informative videos directly related to your profession.

              Expert Interviews

              Inspectioneering's archive of interviews with industry subject matter experts.