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Overview of Codes and Standards

Codes and Standards are the rules and regulations released by both governmental and non-government agencies in order to establish an agreed upon method of operation for conducting business. A proficient understanding of the codes and standards within each discipline is important for anyone working under guidelines to prevent any potential major incidents and to avoid any unnecessary audits.

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Articles about Codes and Standards
  • May/June 2018 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Geoff Clarkson at UTComp, Inc.

    With no industry consensus documents in existence that provide guidance for determining FFS of FRP, this article provides a case study that illustrates how an existing European design standard on GRP tanks can be used to calculate expected changes in FRP for FRP vessels.

  • Blog
    June 25, 2018 By John Reynolds at Intertek

    API's biannual meeting pertaining to downstream equipment standards was held in Seattle, Washington this past April. We've summarized some of the discussions and meetings of that you may find interesting, including the 2019 API Inspection and MI Summit, API Subcommittee on Inspection and Mechanical Integrity updates, and the API Individual Certification Program.

  • March/April 2018 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Keith Lapeyrouse at Process Reliability Solutions

    This article demonstrates the process of converting API RP 576, Inspection of Pressure-Relieving Devices, into a work process that is suitable for conversion into a job procedure. It also explores some lessons learned that will make the document more relevant.

  • Blog
    February 27, 2018 By John Reynolds at Intertek

    In 2017, a joint-initiative from API and AFPM released a helpful brochure that summarizes all the key API standards that deal with fixed equipment mechanical integrity. It describes the latest edition of 42 API standards addressing FEMI issues, including fabrication, construction, in-service inspection, engineering evaluation, maintenance, and more.

  • November/December 2017 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal, and John Nyholt at John Nyholt Consulting, LLC

    Thanks to the development of documents such as API RP 571 and API RP 586, as well as the emergence of qualification demonstration testing, we can align NDT techniques and inspection strategies better than ever. This article examines this progression and applies it to some sample NDT methods.

  • Partner Content

    Facilities are facing increasing challenges, including justifying inflated budgets, managing contractor hours, ensuring regulatory compliance and qualifying the work being completed. To help facilities manage evolving inspection requirements, PinnacleART offers Fixed-Price Inspection (FPI), meaning we will develop and execute a comprehensive Risk-Based Inspection plan for one fixed-price. Yes, you read that right – one fixed-price.

  • Blog
    December 19, 2017 By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Industry SME John Reynolds provides his bi-annual updates from the API Standards Meeting and discusses developments related to the 2019 API Inspection Summit, SCIMI codes, standards, and recommended practices, and the API Individual Certification Program (ICP).

  • Blog
    June 19, 2017 By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Updates and developments related to the 2019 API Inspection Summit, SCIMI code, standard, and recommended practices, and the API Individual Certification Program (ICP).

  • March/April 2017 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    Inspectioneering Founder and Chief Editor, Greg Alvarado, recently had the privilege to sit down with Clay White, Director of Mechanical Integrity for Phillips 66 (Downstream), to discuss the world of fixed equipment reliability in the refining and petrochemical industry.

  • November/December 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Lynne Kaley at Trinity Bridge LLC / Trinity Bridge Digital

    This paper provides the background for the technology behind the Third Edition thinning model as well as step-by-step worked examples demonstrating the methodology for thinning in this new edition of API RP 581.

  • May/June 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    This brief article contains updates and highlights related to the Subcommittee on Inspection (SCI) at the 2016 API Spring Refining Equipment and Standards Meeting.

  • Partner Content

    The Vanta handheld XRF is Olympus’ first full spectrum PMI analyzer that is IP65 rated and drop tested. The analyzer provides accurate, repeatable material chemistry and alloy grade matching in as little as 1–2 seconds. Operation is simple with an intuitive touch screen and swipe interface. Optional Wi-Fi, with the Olympus Scientific Cloud, provides seamless connectivity for efficient data and fleet management.

  • March/April 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Jeremiah Wooten at Inspectioneering, LLC.

    Inspectioneering recently had an opportunity to sit down with Walt Sanford, President and COO of Pinnacle Advanced Reliability Technologies, and discuss what Reliability means to his clients and others in our industry. We hope you find the exchange interesting and informative.

  • Online Article

    Updated editions of both API 570 and API RP 580 were recently released by the American Petroleum Institute.

  • Blog
    January 4, 2016 By John Reynolds at Intertek

    This article provides a summary of the Subcommittee on Inspection (SCI) discussions that occurred at the Fall 2015 API Refining Standards Meeting, including the Inspection Summit Planning Committee and the API ICP Task Group.

  • November/December 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Walt Sanford at PinnacleART

    Maximizing return on investment of physical assets, while at the same time operating safely and in an environmentally responsible manner is now more critical than ever for organizations within the heavy process industries.

  • January/February 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    A meeting of the API Pipeline In-Line Inspection Standards Group was held in Houston, Texas on October 17, 2002. The following is an excerpt from the Draft Scope of the Standard in the working dated, May 13, 2002.

  • Partner Content

    Turnarounds are costly in terms of lost production. In many respects a turnaround can be even more complicated than the initial construction of the facility, so a carefully designed plan will reduce overall costs. After execution, safety reviews, Corrosion Monitoring Program updates, MOC documentation, and PHA Revalidations are a must.

  • September/October 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Marc McConnell, P.E. at Pro-Surve Technical Services, and Nolan L. Miller at SASOL North America

    If we could measure, understand, mitigate, and most importantly, control corrosion, we can do a better job of keeping the product in the pipes. To accomplish this task, we needed to know what is causing the corrosion and how to control it.

  • September/October 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Virginia Edley at Trinity Bridge, LLC.

    If everyone in an industrial setting actively looked for things that were not right or seemed different, or looked at small mistakes as opportunities to prevent larger ones, what would the future look like?

  • July/August 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Rikki Smith at Oilfield Jobs

    Some hiring practices for new employees have been too lax for too long in the pipeline industry. Pipeline inspectors who have ever worked beside someone who was hired via the familiar “friends and family program,” recognize the need for more stringent hiring requirements than just knowing the right person.

  • November/December 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Based on my 45+ years of experience working with fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) issues in the refining and petrochemical processing industry, this article summarizes what I believe are the top 10 reasons why pressure vessels and piping systems continue to fail, thus causing significant process safety events (e.g. explosions, fires, toxic releases, environmental damage, etc.).

  • Blog
    September 24, 2014 By Orlando Costa

    Two separate forces have driven growth in the usage of API storage tank standards in Brazil. The first force is an increased regulatory presence in the refining, chemical, and petrochemical industries, which creates a need to thoroughly document any actions taken to ensure worker health, environmental protection, and the integrity and availability of assets.

  • Partner Content

    Industrial Rope Access is a proven method of achieving a safe work position at elevated heights or areas that are difficult to access. When combined with advanced NDE technologies, rope access technicians can substantially reduce the cost of inspections and maintenance activities by virtually eliminating the need for fixed scaffolding.

  • July/August 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Marc Laplante at Meridium

    One of the more popular topics discussed and debated vigorously in the asset management community is the potential impact of the ISO 55000 series of standards, which was just released in January of 2014 and is the first set of international standards addressing asset management.

  • May/June 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Hugo Julien, P.E. at GCM Consultants, Serge Bisson at GCM Consultants, and Guy St-Arneault, P.E. at GCM Consultants

    Inspections, repairs, modifications, or Fitness-For-Service (FFS) assessments on an old, unfired ASME Section VIII (Div. 1) pressure vessel - Which ASME Section VIII (Div. 1) Code Edition should you use?

  • Blog
    June 2, 2014 By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Three new API standards have been published, and one has been revised and updated to a new edition. The standards are described in this post.

  • March/April 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Jeremiah Wooten at Inspectioneering, LLC.

    Inspectioneering is pleased to announce that our friend, colleague, author and industry leader, Clay White, has recently taken over as chair of API’s Subcommittee on Inspection (SCI).

  • January/February 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Hugo Julien, P.E. at GCM Consultants, Serge Bisson at GCM Consultants, and Guy St-Arneault, P.E. at GCM Consultants

    Inspections, repairs, modifications, or Fitness-For-Service (FFS) assessments on an old, unfired ASME Section VIII (Div. 1) pressure vessel - Which ASME Section VIII (Div. 1) Code Edition should you use?

  • Partner Content

    LOTIS utilizes laser profilometry to conduct internal steam reformer tube inspections. The data captured by LOTIS is exceptionally powerful when combined with our LifeQuest™ remaining life assessment capabilities, providing an integrated solution set for the process and syngas industries.

  • Blog
    December 23, 2013 By Nick Schmoyer at Inspectioneering

    Many of you are already aware of some of the changes that have occurred within API this year. For those of you who are not, here’s a quick summary.

  • Blog
    December 16, 2013 By Marc McConnell, P.E. at Pro-Surve Technical Services

    Being a member of the API ICP, for several years, I know that we are continuously working improve our products. This year was exceptionally productive for us.

  • Blog
    December 9, 2013 By Nick Schmoyer at Inspectioneering

    Starting in March 2014, the American Petroleum Institute Inspector Certification Program (API ICP) will change its examination delivery method from pen-and-paper based testing (PBT) to computer-based testing (CBT). This change is a welcome push toward a more streamlined, efficient method of handling ICP examinations.

  • Blog
    November 18, 2013 By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    Discussions to allow the certification of three existing API recommended practices (RPs) without prior certification to API 510, 570, or 653 were held at recent API Spring and Fall Refining and Equipment Standards Meetings.

  • Blog
    October 28, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Today’s blog post is a continuation on the 10 essential Management Systems needed for an effective PEI program that can achieve excellence. My previous posts covered the first six of these, including LCM, Risk Assessment and Inspection, and Deterioration Management and Control, among others.

  • Partner Content

    PinnacleART’s engineers and inspectors can help your facility define, prioritize and mitigate risks within your facility. Let our team build, implement and maintain a comprehensive mechanical integrity and RBI program for your pressure vessels, heat exchangers, towers, storage tanks, piping, pump casings, pressure relief valves, critical check valves and more.

  • Blog
    October 7, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Knowing what needs to be accomplished in order to achieve excellence in pressure equipment integrity (PEI) is one thing, but knowing how to organize it all for success is quite another.

  • Blog
    September 30, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

    This post concludes the Top 7 reasons why some operating sites "just don’t get it." Reference the previous post for here and here. And for examples of all of the management systems for a sustainable PEI program of excellence, read my article, "The 101 Essential Elements of Pressure Equipment Integrity Management for the Hydrocarbon Process Industry"

  • Blog
    August 5, 2013 By Marc McConnell, P.E. at Pro-Surve Technical Services

    At PinnacleAIS, we often get requests for a Senior API Inspector. But what does that mean exactly? What qualifications are required? Is there a test or a certification that provides the end user with assurance they are getting a higher caliber inspector or inspection service? Often there are different ideas of what comprises a "Senior" Inspector.

  • Blog
    July 22, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Without doubt management needs to ensure that the appropriate resources (human and budgetary) need to be provided for corrosion control and prevention. The C/M engineer/specialist or other responsible party needs to assure that management is advised annually at the appropriate time what resources will be needed for the next budget cycle.

  • July/August 2013 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Dana Schmidt at STI/SPFA

    Tank inspectors and owners, did you know? Each year about 14,000 oil spills are reported, according to the EPA website. It is estimated that there are 618,000 facilities that are regulated under EPA SPCC in the United States.

  • Partner Content

    AET is a powerful, non-intrusive inspection technique to verify the structural integrity of pressure vessels, spheres, high-temperature reactors and piping, coke drums, above-ground storage tanks, cryogenic storage tanks, and more.

  • January/February 2013 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    A new API Individual Certification Program (ICP) will be offered soon to certify inspectors who perform quality assurance (QA) surveillance and inspection activities on new materials and equipment for the energy and chemical (E&C) industry. It is being developed by the API with the assistance of numerous, experienced subject matter experts (SMEs) involved in source inspection activities.

  • March/April 2012 Inspectioneering Journal

    The U.S. Chemical Safety Board (CSB) today announced it is requesting public comments on its draft 2012-2016 CSB Strategic Plan. The draft plan is an update of the 2007 - 2012 CSB Strategic Plan, and includes the CSB's strategic goals, strategic objectives, and associated measures for managing and evaluating agency operations.

  • January/February 2012 Inspectioneering Journal

    The design and fabrication of nuclear pressure vessels and piping components are governed by the rules of Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This Code, which aims to to ensure high levels of structural integrity for safe nuclear plant operation, requires radiographic examination of Class 1 and 2 pressure boundary butt welds to detect structural flaws introduced during welding.

  • September/October 2011 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Three new recommended practices (RP) are under way within the API Inspection Subcommittee (SCI) which will add to the list of SCI standards available to owner-users to improve their mechanical integrity (MI) and inspection programs.

  • July/August 2011 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    In the first article in this series entitled How to Put It All Together - Guide to Organizing a Successful PEI Program, I provided an overview of the necessary Management Systems for a successful program to achieve excellence in pressure equipment integrity. This is the seventh article in that series. Clearly, Codes and Standards have a major role in achieving excellence in Pressure Equipment Integrity and Reliability.

  • Partner Content

    Visit Pro-Surve May 22-25,2018 along with Calculated Controls at Booth 201 in San Antonio to resolve your difficult maintenance, reliability and inspection issues and let us integrate engineering into an inspection solution for you. Attend technical sessions led by subject matter experts. Interactive round table discussion sessions are also scheduled. Renew acquaintances and ask for a church key!

  • November/December 2010 Inspectioneering Journal

    On April 6, 2010, a tragic accident occurred at the Tesoro Refinery in Anacortes, WA, in the Naphtha Hydrotreater process unit (NHT). During routine operations involving an on-line switching of unit heat exchanger feed trains, seven employees were killed immediately, or died later of thermal burn injuries sustained when a feed-effluent heat exchanger catastrophically failed due to high temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA), releasing a hot, pressurized flammable hydrocarbon/hydrogen mixture which ignited. Tesoro released its investigative results to the media on September 01, 2010.

  • September/October 2010 Inspectioneering Journal

    ASME has initiated development of a new personnel certification program for Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) personnel and Quality Control inspectors. The new program, ANDE, will include features consistent with other ASME Personnel Certification best practices.

  • September/October 2010 Inspectioneering Journal

    On September 23, 2010 ASME took part in World Standards Day, which was co-chaired by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

  • September/October 2010 Inspectioneering Journal

    This is a Publicly Available Specification (PAS) published by the British Standards Institution (BSI). PAS 55 gives guidance and a 28-point requirements checklist of proposed good practices in physical asset management; typically this is relevant to oil and gas, chemical, electricity and water utilities, road, air and rail transport systems, public facilities, process, manufacturing and natural resource industries. It is equally applicable to public and private sector, regulated or non-regulated environments.

  • September/October 2010 Inspectioneering Journal

    This recommended practice (RP) identifies leading and lagging process safety indicators useful for driving performance improvement and includes mechanical integrity related items. As a framework for measuring activity, status, or performance, this document classifies process safety indicators into four tiers of leading and lagging indicators. Tiers 1 and 2 are suitable for nationwide public reporting and Tiers 3 and 4 are intended for internal use at individual sites. Guidance on methods for development and use of performance indicators is also provided.

  • Partner Content

    How long does it take for you to receive reports after an inspection has been completed? A week? A month? Does the data come from multiple sources with no way of knowing if it has been manipulated? Traditional inspection contractors do not have the ability to provide reliable and real-time data once an inspection is complete. The only way to ensure accurate, reliable data is with technology.

  • September/October 2010 Inspectioneering Journal

    For years the WRC has provided the documented technical basis for many decisions made regarding design, repair, remaining life estimation, and fitness for service of pressure equipment in our industries. Many codes and industry recommended practices are based on the information found in these bulletins, globally.

  • November/December 2009 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Andrew Balcar at Bricker and Eckler LLP, Michael S. Holman at Bricker and Eckler LLP, Doug Shevelow at Bricker and Eckler LLP, and Matt Warnock at Bricker and Eckler LLP

    A recent well publicized Ohio fatality highlights the simple truth that the oil and gas industry can be a dangerous business. This has been recognized by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, better known as OSHA, which is charged with making sure that all workers perform their work in as safe an environment as possible. Historically sporadic enforcement of OSHA standards in the Ohio oil and gas industry may be coming to an end. This bulletin explains the information you need to know to be prepared for your company's next OSHA inspection.

  • March/April 2009 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    The ASME Post Construction Committee (PCC) has embarked upon a noble activity to produce a guide to using codes, standards, recommended practices, specifications and guidelines that can be used by manufacturers, owners, users, regulators, engineers and all other stakeholders in the total life cycle management (LCM) of pressure equipment. As most of know, there is a very wide array of such documents available and to the best of my knowledge there is no comprehensive guide to how all these documents can be tied together in the cradle to grave management of pressure equipment, from concept to decommissioning.

  • January/February 2009 Inspectioneering Journal

    Progress has been made in this area over the last 5 to 10 years. Here is a listing of helpful references for managing pipeline integrity that represents a lot of that progress and experience. It is by no means exhaustive. To the best of our knowledge the references are current. New editions and addenda may be in progress. It is the responsibility of IJ readers to perform more detailed research before using any of the referenced documents.

  • November/December 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    After pressure equipment (aka fixed or static equipment) is designed, fabricated, and constructed to new construction codes and standards (C/S), it is placed in-service, at which time the API In-service Inspection (ISI) C/S and ASME Post-Construction C/S begin to govern. Within the API Standards Organization, the Subcommittee on Inspection (SCI) produces and maintains most of the ISI standards that govern in the refining and chemical process industry. Also within the API, the Corrosion and Materials Subcommittee (CMSC) produced many recommended practices that are referenced in the ISI C/S. Within the ASME, the Post Construction Committee (PCC) produces and maintains most of the post construction (means the same as ISI) standards that govern equipment after it has been placed in-service.

  • Partner Content

    Properly anticipating and finding the damage in your facility is no small task, and spending millions of dollars on inspection may not be getting you anywhere if it’s not the right inspection processes. PinnacleART can use industry best practice models and corrosion expertise to proactively identify damage types, locations and magnitudes so you can ensure you’re performing the right inspections at the right times. Visit us at to learn more.

  • May/June 2008 Inspectioneering Journal

    The latest revision of this code (AB-506) is dated January 28, 2008. For many readers in the province of Alberta Canada these rules will impact you directly. Others may see effects or feel indirect effects as you jurisdictions may look to ABSA for direction or strongly consider their actions for establishing other jurisdictions' rules.

  • March/April 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    OSHA’s National Emphasis Program (NEP) (1) is now well underway, with 17 of 81 targeted refineries having been reviewed so far (2). OSHA launched the NEP in 2007 after the deadly incident at BP Texas City. As of March this year, OSHA claims to have uncovered 146 violations so far and recommended nearly $1 million in fines.

  • March/April 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    Over the years many in the oil and gas and chemical industry inspectors, engineers and managers have asked, "What happens at API meetings?" With the important regulatory and business initiatives in place and developing it is a good time to answer that question.

  • November/December 2007 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Mark Vining at Sunoco Inc.

    Facilities are often content in compiling event data, entering thickness measurements, assigning a system description, tracking work requests and recommendations in their databases. These are certainly valuable data points but using your database for performing just these tasks relegates a valuable resource to nothing more than a ledger of inspection events. The value of these systems becomes more apparent when they are utilized to show you where you should be inspecting.

  • November/December 2007 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    Over the past 18 years of serious RBI involvement, it has become clear to me that there are certain hurdles, that when "cleared", have paved the way to jurisdictional acceptance of RBI (and fitness for service, for that matter). This article will cover many of these "steps", not all as they are numerous, that have lead to success in some of the "toughest" jurisdictions in the US and the world. On your marks, get set, here we go....

  • Partner Content

    AIM systems should ensure that the your facility’s MI software is accurately performing the calculations needed to calculate minimum thickness, long/short term corrosion rates and remaining life used to predict future inspection intervals. They should evaluate your MI software’s basic design and corrosion monitoring variables.

  • November/December 2007 Inspectioneering Journal

    The ASME/API Inservice Inspection Joint Committee is continuing with its charter to develop and maintain a standard addressing inspection, repair, alteration and rerating for pressure vessels and piping systems after they have been placed into service for the petroleum refining and chemical process industries. This article is an update on the progress toward that goal and an explanation of some of the issues surrounding the effort.

  • May/June 2007 Inspectioneering Journal

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) is issuing this publication's announcement to inform companies involved in the distribution, transportation, storage, and blending of denatured fuel ethanol of a potential for metal cracking and product leakage from carbon steel equipment in certain portions of the fuel ethanol distribution system. API, with assistance from the Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), has published Technical Report 939-D, Second Edition, that describes cracking events and associated ethanol leaks, the results of related research and field studies, and preliminary guidelines for mitigation and prevention.

  • May/June 2007 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    From time to time, I'm asked why some operating sites don't seem to pay adequate attention to the need to protect and preserve pressure equipment integrity (PEI). Too often a few sites don't seem to "get it" until they have a major process safety event associated with a failure of pressure equipment. And unfortunately when that happens, they are suddenly on board with PEI needs and don't seem to be able to apply their available resources fast enough. Fortunately, I see less and less of this type behavior as time passes and the word spreads throughout the industry about PEI catastrophes and how to avoid them.

  • January/February 2007 Inspectioneering Journal

    Since the publication of NACE MR0175/ISO 15156, "Petroleum and natural gas industries- Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production," in December 2003, the ISO Maintenance Panel set up to maintain this widely used standard and the Oversight Committee, NACE Task Group (TG) 299, has reviewed and approved 15 proposals for change to the standard.

  • January/February 2007 Inspectioneering Journal

    NACE International has approved two highly anticipated standards dedicated to the control of internal pipeline corrosion.

  • Partner Content

    InVista is a lightweight, hand-held ultrasonic in-line inspection tool (intelligent pig) capable of detecting pipeline wall loss and corrosion in unpiggable or difficult-to-inspect pipelines. The pipeline geometry inspection data captured by the InVista tool is exceptionally powerful when combined with the LifeQuest™ Pipeline fitness-for-service capabilities, providing an integrated solution set for the pipeline industry.

  • November/December 2006 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Don Cook at State of California

    On July 26, 2006, the State of California revised its Petroleum Safety Orders. The Petroleum Safety Orders are part of the California Code of Regulations Title 8 and address the health and safety requirements for places of employment in the State of California.

  • July/August 2006 Inspectioneering Journal

    One has seen the television commercials already introducing "2007 model year" vehicles; "totally re- engineered", "bold new styling", and "more standard equipment" to name a few. The release of the 9th edition of API Std. 510, Pressure Vessel Inspection Code, conjures up similar images although the clichés might be "completely redesigned", "improved technology throughout", but "same great engine". The 9th edition had its beginnings back when API Std 570, Piping Inspection Code, hit the road in 1993. The new piping code had clear organization and content geared toward industry's changing requirements. API 510, on the other hand, was a seasoned code tinkered with through the years. Numerous ballots added and changed words, sentences, and such. The code became a bit disjointed with so many changes and further, did not align with the piping code. Thus, the long term vision was to rewrite API 510 using API 570 as the model and align the two codes.

  • May/June 2006 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Chris Ablitt at TWI, and Julian Speck at TWI Ltd.

    On 11 December 2005, fuel at the Buncefield storage ter- minal near London exploded. The incident and immediate aftermath were described in the March-April 2006 edition of IJ. The investigation into the disaster began at the end of January. Three progress reports have since been published. The first progress report dealt with the response to the incident, and the second with the environmental impact of the explosion.

  • May/June 2006 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Paul Marks at NDT Training and Placement Center

    The term "certification" has been used and abused over the decades since the 1960's when American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) published its first Recommended Practice, SNT-TC-1A, 2001, our comments are meant to clear up an de-mystify the issue of certification within the minds of users of NDT services in this country. This article goes to the heart of the question, "What does 'certified Level 1 or II NDT technician' really mean?"

  • May/June 2006 Inspectioneering Journal

    Revisions to the California Code of Regulations Title 8 Petroleum Safety Orders are nearly complete and the new regulations should be published late summer 2006. The regulations will affect both drilling and production facilities and refining, transportation, and handling facilities.

  • Partner Content

    Integrating a new digital technology that combines data-driven insights and data storage with innovative mobility can provide a new level of connected intelligence. Digitalization can improve workflow, increase worker productivity and allow better recording of field data. Mobile technology allows for real-time data monitoring and strategic decision making via specialized tablet-driven software.

  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By M.Z. Umar at Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Nassir B. Ibrahim, Dr, Ab., and Razak B. Hamzah at Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT)

    Is calibration of NDT or any other equipment necessary? The answer is certainly Yes! But a question still arises. Why? Because in the case of NDT it is required by national and international standards. Many NDT standards require that a system of periodic calibration and maintenance must exist for any facility that performs nondestructive testing. For instance, ASTM E-1212 Section 9.2.2 mentions that all measuring and test equipment shall be calibrated and controlled to insure accuracy of measurement of products and processes to a specified requirement. So why would we even need to ask the question? Because many institutes and research organizations do not have periodic calibration and maintenance programs and are not required to have such programs except for safety related work!

  • July/August 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Mark Bagnell at Equipment Management & Inspection

    Aging phenolic resin reactors built in the 1960's were constructed of SA304 stainless steel, many of which were originally fabricated to ASME Section VIII standards were never registered as such nor with the National Board. Some of these reactors have been exhibiting stress corrosion cracking, (SCC) in the shell plate where external carbon steel structural components such as support legs and vacuum rings are attached. The problem is observed primarily at the interface of support legs where reinforcing pads or "poison" pads have not been installed. Of the vessels inspected to date approximately 50% have been identified as having SCC.

  • May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Julian Speck at TWI Ltd., and Amin Muhammed at TWI

    Current BSI and ASME codes for the construction of pressure vessels, boilers and piping specify that post-weld heat treatment is required if the thickness of the components being welded exceeds a specified value. This value depends on the type of material being used, and varies from code to code. An alternative procedure is available for deciding whether or not PWHT is necessary to avoid the risk of failure by fracture. This involves conducting a fracture mechanics assessment using procedures such as those in BSI 7910, or API 579. The use of these procedures is permitted in the British pressure vessel standard BS PD 5500:2003.

  • May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bob Stakenborghs, P.E. at Evisive Inc.

    API is preparing to release the next edition of API 579 Fitness-For-Service (FFS) the first quarter of 2006. The many major enhancements that have been made to the next edition of API 579 will permit Owner-Users to evaluate new types of damage including HIC/SOHIC and Dentgouge combinations, and allow detailed remaining life assessments of components operating in the creep range. In addition, new procedures for stress analysis have been developed that will enhance the usability and accuracy o f Level 3 Assessments resulting in longer running times for damaged components.

  • November/December 2004 Inspectioneering Journal

    Several new API inspection recommended practices exist in which inspectors need to be knowledgeable and qualified. This article details some of those standards.

  • Partner Content

    It is difficult to cover all inspection applications with basic inspection procedures like radiography, ultrasonics, magnetic particle testing, and dye penetrant inspection. Owner-operators are finding that advanced NDE services such as guided-wave ultrasonics, AUT corrosion mapping, and eddy current testing are essential tools to keep their facilities operating safely and efficiently.

  • March/April 2004 Inspectioneering Journal

    API Recommended Practice 571, Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry

  • March/April 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    ASME has an active Post Construction Committee (PCC) for generating standards for in-service inspection. As such, the ASME is no longer just a "new construction" standardization organization. The Subcommittee on Repair and Testing now has 23 chapters in preparation on various methods of conducting repairs (temporary and permanent) on pressure equipment, tanks and piping.

  • September/October 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    The API Inspection Subcommittee has issued the second edition of their inspection benchmarking survey. We are encouraging as many sites, worldwide, to participate as possible, so that we have the most amount of data available for analysis and conclusions.

  • September/October 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    API is currently developing a new Certification Program - Tank Entry Supervisor Certification (TES).

  • July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    This document gives an overview about the structure and the contents of the Pressure Equipment Directive.

  • Partner Content

    Passing the API RP 571 or API 580 certification is not easy, but it is a must for anyone looking to demonstrate aptitude with Damage Mechanisms or Risk-Based Inspection (RBI). Choose training with an instructor that has decades of experience with both the fundamental concepts of Damage Mechanisms or RBI as well as the specifics of the respective RP's. Contact Stephanie Simek at Pro-Surve today.

  • May/June 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    A new recommended practice from the API is in the final stages of preparation before publications. It is API RP 577 on Welding Inspection and Metallurgy.

  • May/June 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Next year, the API Inspector Recertification Program (ICP) will be recertifying inspectors who have held their API certifications for more than 6 years. Things have changed this time though, and inspectors will be required to pass a short exam covering material that has changed in the past 6 years.

  • November/December 2002 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    An effort is currently underway to create a new code for in-service inspection and maintenance of pressure equipment in the hydrocarbon process industry. The API Committee on Refinery Equipment (CRE) and the ASME Board on Pressure Technology Codes & Standards (BPTCS) have agreed to explore the idea by putting together a joint task group that would report to both organizations. That group will be meeting soon to put together a set of committee operating procedures and the scope/objective of the document for approval by the API CRE & ASME BPTCS. Once the charter/scope and operating procedures are approved by both societies, a committee will be assembled to accomplish the task.

  • November/December 2002 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Philip Myers at Chevron Texaco

    The purpose of the new SPCC rule is two-fold; i.e. to prevent oil spills from occurring and to respond to them if they do occur. We believe that few will argue that prevention is far better and less costly than response in general. The focus of this paper is to highlight how the new SPCC invokes existing industry standards as a requirement for implementation at all covered facilities in an effort to prevent spills. In particular, we focus on the most important industry standards that are required to prevent spills from occurring in existing facilities. Since the SPCC rule does not specifically identify any required standards the task of figuring out which standards are applicable and must be implemented is a challenging one. There are at least a hundred industry standards related to tanks and terminal facilities.

  • September/October 2002 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    In May 2002, after 6 years of preparation, the API published the first edition of API 580 Risk-based Inspection. The document is now an ANSI/API Standard, which was balloted and approved using the ANSI consensus process for creating American National Standards. As such it becomes a "recognized and generally accepted good engineering practice", for use by all companies in the oil and chemical industry.

  • Partner Content

    Heat exchangers are vital pieces of process equipment for all refineries and petrochemical plants. When one goes down or is running at reduced efficiency, operators can lose a lot of money. Whether repairs can be made onsite or require offsite work, it is important to have a trusted service provider that possesses the experience and equipment to make the needed repairs quickly.

  • July/August 2002 Inspectioneering Journal

    ABSA is the regulatory body governing practices related to pressure vessel and piping integrity for the Canadian province of Alberta.

  • January/February 2002 Inspectioneering Journal

    The office of Minerals Management Services (MMS) is proposing to add a reference into their regulations governing oil and gas and sulphur operations in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). This revision will ensure that lessees use the best available and safest technologies while operating in the OCS. The new document is API 510, titled "Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: Maintenance Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alteration."

  • November/December 2001 Inspectioneering Journal

    NACE is an excellent source of reference material for the Inspectioneer. This current recommended practice is at draft #4 stage.

  • May/June 2001 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Russel T. Mack at National Association of Inspection Companies (NAIC)

    In a previous edition of Inspectioneering Journal, we alerted readers to a proposal to the Texas PE Board that would require NDT inspector certification according to CP-189 (instead of SNT-TC-1A)-which would effectively eliminate limited-scope certifications. The proposal would also require that every inspection service company have on full-time staff-a registered PE who is also an ASNT-certified NDT Level-III.

  • November/December 2000 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Paul Marks at NDT Training and Placement Center

    I was certified within days of my entry into the business. Inside three months, I had performed as lead technician on several refinery inspection projects, as well as skid mounted oil and gas compressor units. I had also performed ultrasonic weld inspection of the complex welds used months, I was supervising the operations of that company (because the manager was primarily involved in sales). My progress was meteoric! What a business! How was it that a rookie could progress so rapidly with this new employer? Did he have the NDT education credentials of Robert C. McMaster? Was it his background in science? The answer to all of these is the same. No! I struggled mightily to get through high school level geometry and biology. One year at a state university and three years of night school had not generated a degree. What I did have was what everybody else seemed to have - average intelligence, a hunger to learn, and a need to work a lot of overtime. (Pay was meager, but overtime was plentiful.)

  • Partner Content

    It’s a scary thought to think that with all the new advancements in technology, some facilities still rely on traditional inspection contractors that perform out of date procedures. You rely on technology to keep your home and identity safe, so why run the risk of hiring inspection contractors without technological solutions to provide the vital information needed to keep your facility safe.

  • November/December 2000 Inspectioneering Journal

    The recently released API RP-579 Fitness-for-Service Recommended Practice highlights the need for a measurable degree of reliability in NDE results. In fact, the industry has been asking for a process to assure a minimum level of inspection quality for some time.

  • September/October 2000 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Russel T. Mack at National Association of Inspection Companies (NAIC)

    In the petrochemical industry, we have noticed that many separate organizations are attempting to improve the quality of engineering and inspection. For example, many readers are familiar with the efforts of ASME (Post-Construction Code Requirements for Qualification & Certification of NDE Personnel), ASNT (ACCP NDT Central Certification Program), AWS/TWI (CSWIP NDT certification program), API (initiative for certification of NDT UT shear-wave weld inspectors), and NACE (Corrosion Engineering Personnel Qualification & Certification).

  • March/April 2000 Inspectioneering Journal

    An API task group is working on the total revision of this API reference document 571.

  • March/April 2000 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Gerrit M. Buchheim, P.E. at Becht Engineering Co., Inc.

    The release of API RP579 will bring about some changes to other existing API Codes and Recommended Practices. The long-range plan is to offer an integrated suite of API Codes and Recommended Practices, where information is presented once and the other documents refer and are linked to that information. The In-Service Inspection Codes in the US for petrochemical pressure containing equipment are: * API 510 - Pressure Vessels * API 570 - Piping * API 653 - Tankage, and * ANSI NB NB-23 (NBIC) - Pressure Vessels & Piping

  • March/April 1999 Inspectioneering Journal

    The API Subcommittee on Inspection (SCI) has determined to initiate a program covering the qualification of ultrasonic (UT) technicians conducting inspections.

  • September/October 1998 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal, and Paul Barringer at Barringer & Associates

    Inspection to determine mechanical integrity is important to verify that equipment is suitable for intended use, i.e. to prevent or minimize the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable, or explosive chemicals as required by OSHA 1910.119 - Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (and other jurisdictional codes).

  • May/June 1998 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Roland A. Goodman at American Petroleum Institute

    The API Subcommittees on Inspection and Pressure Vessels & Tanks are ever vigilant in keeping up with current trends and state-of-the-art technology for in-service inspection of pressure vessels, process piping, and aboveground storage tanks. One result of this effort is the recognition of risk-based inspection (RBI) methods by the API inspection codes (API 510, 570, and 653) as a valid methodology for developing an inspection strategy.

  • July/August 1997 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Michael Twomey at CONAM Inspection Inc., and Jay N. Rothbart at Conam Inspection Inc.

    Regulatory requirements such as OSHA 1910, industry codes and practices coupled with an international drive for more cost-effective preventative maintenance are leading the industry toward data information management systems to assist in organizing and prioritizing preventive maintenance strategies. This shift coincides with the movement toward a risk-based inspection approach to plant condition management. This approach ranks units or individual equipment according to criticality or risk, allowing inspection efforts to be focused where they can have the greatest effect in risk reduction. There are a number of points to bear in mind when planning to implement a plant condition management system.

  • March/April 1997 Inspectioneering Journal

    Dr. David Wang, Shell Oil Company, reviewed the status of PERF project 95-11, Advanced Acoustic Emission for On-Stream Inspection, with NACE task group T-3L-14 (acoustic emission), at the Corrosion '97' conference in New Orleans, LA, on March 10, 1997. This project is still open to membership.

  • January/February 1997 Inspectioneering Journal

    The ASME PCC continues to meet four times per year during ASME Code Week. The last meeting was on December 9, 1996. Over 50 members and visitors were in attendance. At that meeting, both subcommittees (Flaw Evaluation S/C and Inspection Planning S/C) continued to work on drafting detailed outlines of what each S/C expected to cover in its respective document.

  • January/February 1997 Inspectioneering Journal

    Shortly after World War II, the FRP industry expanded rapidly into many areas. Chemical tanks were first fabricated in the 1950s. A comprehensive standard was needed and in 1969 a consensus standard was issued by the National Bureau of Standards: NBS PS 15-69 "Custom Contact-Molded Reinforced-Polyester Chemical-Resistant Process Equipment."

  • September/October 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    "Inspection and testing procedures shall follow recognized and generally accepted good engineering practice," can mean many things to many people. Fortunately, organizations like API, NACE, ASME, etc. have taken the initiative in establishing many of these practices for decades.

  • May/June 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Rolland E. Stroup at JBF Associates, Inc.

    Since OSHA began issuing citations under the Process Safety Management (PSM) standard (29 CFR 1910.119), the relative frequency of citations related to some subsections of the regulation has increased dramatically, while the frequency of others has decreased just as dramatically. Has OSHA changed its focus over time? Will there be new trends in the future? These issues can be better understood by looking at citation history and the continuing deadlines built into the regulation.

  • May/June 1996 Inspectioneering Journal

    Task Group T-1G-24 on Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Pipe and Accessories in Oilfield Service is working on a test method for evaluating the compatibility of FRP tubulars in oilfield environments. They hope to submit a draft for ballot shortly. To vote on this draft, join Unit Committee T-1G.

  • March/April 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Yehuda Dror at DNV Certification, Inc.

    The ISO 9000 series of standards is one of the fastest growing quality initiatives in the world. Nearly 100,000 certificates of compliance with ISO 9000 standards have been issued in some 80 countries, including over 8,000 certificates in the U.S. But what are the standards? How do they work? And how do they apply to an inspection company?

  • March/April 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Steven L. Braune, P.E. at AEC Engineering, Inc.

    Since the publication of API Standard 653, Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Reconstruction in early 1991 it has gained wide acceptance within the petroleum and chemical industries. In addition, six states (Alaska, Arkansas, Florida, Pennsylvania, Virginia and Washington) have referred to or incorporated API-653 into their petroleum AST regulations. At the very least, API-653 has become the new buzz word throughout the industry and the phrase "inspected in conformance with API-653" is tossed around freely in most inquiries for inspection services.

  • January/February 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Will Carter at ASME Post Construction Committee

    In June of 1995, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Council on Codes and Standards approved the formation of a new main committee, the Post Construction Committee (PCC). The action culminated the activities of a Task Group on Post Construction. The Task Group studied the need for post-construction standards for pressurized equipment constructed per ASME Codes and Standards.

  • May/June 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    As chairman of the API Inspection Subcommittee, one of the questions I often receive involves the difference between the API Pressure Vessel Inspection Code (API-510) and the National Board Inspection Code (NBIC).

  • May/June 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
    By David A. Moore, PE, CSP at AcuTech Consulting, Inc., and Dana P. Albert at Acutech Consulting, Inc.

    The United States Department of Labor (USDOL) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard 29 CFR 1910.119, "Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals," has been in effect since may of 1992. To enforce this standard, OSHA has targeted seven industries for which it plans and conducts routine compliance inspections.

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