Inspectioneering Journal

Pipeline Integrity References Update

This article appears in the January/February 2009 issue of Inspectioneering Journal.

Progress has been made in this area over the last 5 to 10 years. Here is a listing of helpful references for managing pipeline integrity that represents a lot of that progress and experience. It is by no means exhaustive. To the best of our knowledge the references are current. New editions and addenda may be in progress. It is the responsibility of IJ readers to perform more detailed research before using any of the referenced documents.

Topics covered include but are not limited to covering in line inspection, risk assessment and direct assessment. While these documents cover pipelines, there is valuable information that can be gleaned from some of the publications for inspection of piping inside plant battery limits where the main challenges are smaller pipe diameters, different consequence scenarios, smaller pipe lengths, multiple pipe connections, etc. Readers should always consider their unique scenarios, which include and are not limited to; jurisdictional requirements, past failure histories, environmental and safety situations, logistical and cleanliness requirements - and tailor the inspection strategy appropriately.

To keep up to date on any of the standards mentioned below, seriously consider participation in the various committees, sub-committees and working groups responsible for keeping them current and representative of industry best practices. Check within your organization. A colleague may be participating. Also, when reading the following references keep the publication dates in mind. Many of the technologies are quickly evolving and improving. We therefore recommend readers check for the latest editions of these standards for the most up to date information performance, development, history in the field, results of field trials, etc.

API 1160 - Managing System Integrity for Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

This standard outlines a process that an operator of a pipeline system can use to assess risks and make decisions about risks in operating a hazardous liquid pipeline in order to reduce both the number of incidents and the adverse effects of errors and incidents. Section 5 describes the integrity management framework that forms the basis of this standard. This framework is illustrated schematically in Figure 5-1. This standard also supports the development of integrity management programs required under Title 49 CFR 195.452 of the federal pipeline safety regulations. November 2001, First Edition. For more information visit the web page

B31.8S - Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines

This Standard applies to on-shore pipeline systems constructed with ferrous materials and that transport gas. This includes all parts of physical facilities through which gas is transported, including pipe, valves, appurtenances attached to pipe, compressor units, metering stations, regulator stations, delivery stations, holders and fabricated assemblies. The principles and processes embodied in integrity management are applicable to all pipeline systems. This Standard is specifically designed to provide the operator with the information necessary to develop and implement an integrity management program utilizing proven industry practices and processes. The processes and approaches within this Standard are applicable to the entire pipeline system. ASME published 2004. For more information visit the web page http://catalog. System.cfm or NACE RP 0102-2002 - Standard Recommended Practice, In-Line Inspection of Pipelines This recommended practice addresses the various types of in-line inspection technologies, such as pigs, for assessment of pipeline corrosion and cracking. For more information visit the web page www.nace. org

NACE SP 0208-2008 - Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment Methodology for Liquid Petroleum Pipelines

This standard was published in 2008 by Task Group 315. This standard describes the basis of the liquid petroleum internal corrosion direct assessment (LP- ICDA) method and its four steps: (1) pre-assessment, (2) indirect assessment, (3) direct examination, and (4) post assessment. With the LP-ICDA approach, assessments can be performed on pipe segments for which alternative methods (e.g., in-line inspection, hydrostatic testing, etc.) may not be practical. This methodology may be incorporated into corrosion integrity and risk management plans. For more information visit the web page

NACE SP 0502 2008 - Pipeline External Corrosion Direct Assessment Methodology

This standard was reaffirmed in 2008. Covers the NACE external corrosion direct assessment (ECDA) process—a process of assessing and reducing the impact of external corrosion on pipeline integrity. ECDA is a continuous improvement process providing the advantages of locating areas where defects can form in the future, not just areas where defects have already formed, thereby helping to prevent future external corrosion damage. This standard covers the 4 components of ECDA: Pre-Assessment, Indirect Inspections, Direct Examinations, and Post Assessment. For more information visit the web page

NACE RP 0204 - 2008 - Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) Direct Assessment Methodology

This standard recommended practice is intended for use by pipeline operators and others who must manage pipeline integrity for the threat of SCC. SCCDA as described in this standard is specifically intended to address buried onshore petroleum (natural gas, crude oil, and refined products) production, transmission, and distribution pipelines constructed from line-pipe steels. Users of this standard must be familiar with all applicable pipeline safety regulations for the jurisdiction in which the pipeline operates. This includes all regulations requiring specific pipeline integrity assessment practices and programs.

API 1163 - In-Line Inspections Systems Qualifications Standard, First Edition August 2005

This Standard covers the use of in-line inspection systems for onshore and offshore gas and hazardous liquid pipelines. This includes, but is not limited to, tethered or free flowing systems for detecting metal loss, cracks, mechanical damage, pipeline geometries, and pipeline location or mapping, The Standard applies to both existing and developing technologies.

This Standard is an umbrella document that provides performance-based requirements for in-line inspection systems, including procedures, personnel, equipment, and associated software.

The Standard includes the following sections:

  • Terms and Definitions
  • Systems Qualification Process and Incorporated Standards - Overall process description with referenced qualification requirements for in-line inspection personnel and equipment.
  • In-Line Inspection System Selection - Requirements for selecting an in-line inspection system for a specific pipeline application.
  • Qualification of Performance Specifications - Requirements for establishing, documenting, and validating performance specifications of in-line inspection systems.
  • System Operational Validation - Requirements that must be met before, during, and after running an in-line inspection system to assure that the system functioned properly.
  • System Results Verification-Requirements for verifying that the results of an inspection are consistent with the performance specification.
  • Reporting Requirements.
  • Quality Management System-Requirements for documentation, quality control, continuous improve- ment, and system review. For more information visit the web page

ANSI/ASNT ILI-PQ-2005 - In-Line Inspection Personnel Qualification & Certifications

This document provides a standard means for employers to qualify and certify nondestructive testing personnel using in-line inspection technologies on oil and gas pipelines to include levels of qualification, education, training, and experience requirements, examinations, certification, and recertification. For more information visit the web page

• TTO Number 5 - Low Frequency ERW and Lap Welded Longitudinal Seam Evaluation, October 2003

This Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration, Office of Pipeline Safety’s report has been developed in accordance with the Statement of Work and proposal submitted in response to RFP for Technical Task Order Number 5 (TTO 5) entitled “Low Frequency ERW and Lap Welded Longitudinal Seam Evaluation”. This scope included review of issues related to NDT methods and ILI technologies, traditional hydrostatic testing and spike tests with special emphasis on duration of testing, integrity assessment procedures, and engineering criticality analysis applied to LF-ERW pipe and lap welded pipe longitudinal seams. Suggested guidelines that OPS can use to create policy for applicability of longitudinal seam testing used by operators and to enforce operator compliance with 49 CFR 195.452 (j) (6) have also been developed.

This report documents a review focused on evaluation of longitudinal seams on LF-ERW pipe and lap-welded pipe, particularly that manufactured before 1970, as well as DC-ERW pipe and EFW pipe. As part of the integrity management requirements for pipelines in high consequence areas, 49 CFR 195.452 (j) (6) states “for low frequency electric resistance welded pipe or lap-welded pipe susceptible to longitudinal seam failure, an operator must select integrity assessment methods capable of assessing seam integrity and of detecting corrosion and deformation anomalies”.

While many different ILI tools are available for assessing pipeline integrity, to date only three types are capable of detecting cracks and crack-like features, which are the main defects of interest when discussing longitudinal seam issues on LF-ERW and lap-welded pipe. These tools are TFI (Transverse Field Inspection), EMAT (Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer ), and variously, shear wave UT, elastic wave, or C-UT (Circumferential Ultrasonic Testing). EMAT has only recently been developed and there is little to no actual performance data available. Another type of tool, ET, is being considered for use as a pipeline ILI technology. Of the two technologies that have seen significant use, TFI and UT, UT typically produces the best results with regard to longitudinal seam issues.

To download a free copy of this report click on this Internet link erw_finalreport_103003.pdf

• TTO Number 8 - Stress Corrosion Cracking Study,September 2004

This Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration, Office of Pipeline Safety’s report has been developed in accordance with the Statement of Work and proposal submitted in response to RFP for Technical Task Order Number 8 (TTO 8), “Stress Corrosion Cracking Study.”

This report reviews the available information on Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in liquid and gas pipelines. The information is contained in a number of locations and, although generally consistent in approach, reveals the uncertainty in both the understanding and practical operational methods to effectively prevent, detect, assess, and/or remediate SCC in pipelines. Additional research needs are outlined and prioritized in this regard.

Along with the review of existing information, a questionnaire was circulated to operators, and several detailed operator interviews were conducted. In addition, the applicability of the current regulatory oversight, including Integrity Management (IM) plan review, was considered. A review of procedures for conducting SCC failure investigations was also performed.

Recommendations were made to guide oversight in all areas of the study.

To download a free copy of this report click on this Internet link SCC_REPORT.pdf

• U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS), Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, OPS Perspective on Pipeline Excavation Damage, from the January 23, 2008 API-AOPL Damage Prevention Workshop, Houston, TX

In addition, statistics for sources of major failures presented for liquid and gas onshore pipelines including corrosion, natural force damage, human error, excavation damage, and other causes from 1987 through 2006. To view the presentation visit the web link upload/USDOT_PHMSA_OPS_Perspective_on_ Pipeline_Excavation_Damage.pdf

Figure 1-1 Causes of Gas Transmission Incidents (from OPS workshop 12/2003)
Figure 1-1 Causes of Gas Transmission Incidents (from OPS workshop 12/2003)

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