Inspectioneering

John Reynolds: About the Author
Principal Consultant, Intertek


John Reynolds

John Reynolds is a Principal Consultant with Intertek Asset Integrity Management, Inc. Prior to this he was a Master Engineering Consultant with Shell Oil's Westhollow Technology Center in Houston. After graduating from the University of Wisconsin with degrees in Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering, John joined Shell in 1968 and retired from Shell in 2006. Over the 37+ years of employment with a number of the Shell companies, John held various engineering and management positions at Shell's refining and chemical processing sites, as well as central offices in the United States and Europe. Along the way, one of John's favorite activities was providing leadership for Shell's intranet communities of interest dealing with the 101 Essential Elements of Fixed Equipment Mechanical Integrity (FEMI). The focus of John's entire 49+ year career has been on establishing and improving FEMI programs in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. As part of that continuing goal, another of his favorite activities is continuing participation in the API/AFPM Process Safety Site Assessment Program (PSSAP) as one of the FEMI specialists providing feedback to operating sites that seek to improve their FEMI programs.

Since retiring from Shell, John has remained active in FEMI activities servicng as an industry consultant and expert witness for numerous refining and petrochemical companies. He has been and is currently the master editor for several API Standards on Inspection and FEMI-related topics, and remains active in both the API Subcommittee on Inspection (SCI) and the ASME Post- Construction Committee (PCC). John is the past Chairman of the API Subcommittee on Inspection, the API Task Group on Inspection Codes, the API Task Group on NDE Technology, the API Task Group on API 580 RBI, and the API User Group on Risk-Based Inspection. He has also been the Downstream Business Sector Lead for the Planning Committee of the API Inspection Summit since its inception in 2007. Over the years, John has authored more than 75 articles and/or presentations on FEMI subjects, many of which have been published with Inspectioneering Journal and are summarized in his book "101 Essential Elements in a Pressure Equipment Integrity Management Program."

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Published Articles

The Role of the Source Inspector in the QA Process
September/October 2017 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Although commonly lumped together as a singular acronym, there are important distinctions between Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC). This article defines and distinguishes the role of QA and, in particular, how source inspection factors into that role.

Are Your FEMI KPIs Getting Old and Stale?
July/August 2017 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Are your key performance indicators actually driving improvement? Could they be more effective? In this actionable and concise article, John Reynolds is back again to discuss some KPIs you could be using to monitor your progress down the path to FEMI excellence.

Fixed Equipment Mechanical Integrity (FEMI) Resources – Past vs. the Present
May/June 2017 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

35 years ago, an inspection supervisor, some inspectors, and a project engineer could cover an entire refinery. So why are so many more mechanical integrity resources needed today?

Blog
June 19, 2017 By John Reynolds at Intertek

Updates and developments related to the 2019 API Inspection Summit, SCIMI code, standard, and recommended practices, and the API Individual Certification Program (ICP).

Fifty Important Roles & Responsibilities of the Plant Corrosion/Materials Specialist
January/February 2017 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In this article, the roles and responsibilities of the corrosion and materials SME will be outlined as I see them, fully recognizing that there is probably no one person out there with all the knowledge and skills suggested herein.

Blog
February 27, 2017 By John Reynolds at Intertek

The 2017 API Inspection Summit in Galveston was another big success, as evidences by the critique sheets of attendees. Another attendance record was set with 1406 registered attendees, all of whom had choose among nearly 200 different presentations over the three day span.

Blog
December 29, 2016 By John Reynolds at Intertek

The Fall API Standards Meeting was incredibly productive and addressed, among other issues, the API Inspection Summit, balloting for the 11th edition of API 510, and improvements to the inspection section of each damage mechanism in API RP 571.

The Hierarchy of a Fixed Equipment Asset Integrity Management Program
September/October 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Did you ever wonder where you fit into the entire hierarchy of a fixed equipment asset integrity management (FE-AIM) program? Or who is responsible and accountable for what aspects of FE-AIM at your site? All the way from top management down to those doing the work at the field level? That’s what I will try to address in this article.

Blog
October 27, 2016 By John Reynolds at Intertek

I hope by now, everyone is aware that the next API Inspection Summit will be held again at the Galveston Convention Center from January 31– February 2, 2017.

Blog
August 25, 2016 By John Reynolds at Intertek

Sometimes with our busyness with the “Daily Grind”, we can forget about our most important mission – prevention of a big event caused by an unanticipated fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) failure. Those big events are the ones that get a lot of media attention, cost many tens of millions of dollars, cause big losses of production & capacity, and worst of all, may result in fatalities.

Highlights from API’s 2016 Spring Refining Standards Meeting: Subcommittee on Inspection (SCI)
May/June 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

This brief article contains updates and highlights related to the Subcommittee on Inspection (SCI) at the 2016 API Spring Refining Equipment and Standards Meeting.

Creating an Effective Inspection  Recommendation Management System
March/April 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
By Mark Bell at Ethos Mechanical Integrity Solutions, and John Reynolds at Intertek

We have seen many different inspection recommendation management systems. Most of them struggle to effectively manage all inspection recommendations. However, a few of them are excellent. What makes an effective system?

Online Article
March 7, 2016 By John Reynolds at Intertek

Updated editions of both API 570 and API RP 580 were recently released by the American Petroleum Institute.

Blog
January 4, 2016 By John Reynolds at Intertek

This article provides a summary of the Subcommittee on Inspection (SCI) discussions that occurred at the Fall 2015 API Refining Standards Meeting, including the Inspection Summit Planning Committee and the API ICP Task Group.

A Tale of Two Operating Sites – The Difference in Quality of Two FEMI Programs
November/December 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Once upon a time in the land of Ooze, there were two processing plants that boiled oil to make fuels and various other valuable petrochemical products. On one side of the river, rests a site called Perfecto Process Plant, while just across the river lies another plant called InZayna Zylum.

5 Major Fixed Equipment Mechanical Integrity Failures –  What Happened and Why?
July/August 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Rarely is there a new and unknown cause of a major Fixed Equipment Mechanical Integrity (FEMI) failure in the petrochemical and refining industry. This article briefly summarizes five major fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) failures from the petrochemical and refining industry.

Blog
June 8, 2015 By John Reynolds at Intertek

There should be a policy in place and enforced by management at each operating site of not allowing equipment and repair recommendations to become overdue for inspection and handling. Such a practice goes a long way toward increasing the credibility of the inspection efforts at each operating site, as well sending the message that FEMI is just as important as other plant priorities. Of course, in order to get to that point, inspection scheduling, data quality, data analysis, and...

Blog
March 30, 2015 By John Reynolds at Intertek

The 2015 API Spring Refining and Equipment Standards Meeting will be held at the Seattle Sheraton during the week of April 13-16, with plenty of interesting meetings for Inspectioneers.  You do not need...

Management of Change for Fixed Equipment Mechanical Integrity
Blog
March 9, 2015 By John Reynolds at Intertek

Management of change (MOC) for fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) issues is one of the most important of the 101 essential elements in pressure...

Blog
February 2, 2015 By John Reynolds at Intertek

The development of advanced NDE techniques/tools is one of the reasons the inspection trade has taken significant steps forward in the last couple decades; and the advancements appear to be accelerating.  One of the many ways to keep up with advancing NDE technology is to attend the semi-annual NDE task group meetings at the Spring and Fall API Refining and Equipment Standards Meetings.  In fact, that T/G is planning to document many of the advanced NDE...

The Top 10 Reasons for FEMI Failures in the Hydrocarbon Process Industries
November/December 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Based on my 45+ years of experience working with fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) issues in the refining and petrochemical processing industry, this article summarizes what I believe are the top 10 reasons why pressure vessels and piping systems continue to fail, thus causing significant process safety events (e.g. explosions, fires, toxic releases, environmental damage, etc.).

Integrating Mechanical Integrity Risk Management Systems with PHAs
Blog
December 1, 2014 By John Reynolds at Intertek

One of the reasons we continue to have too many fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) events in the refining and process industries is the lack of understanding and appreciation by site management for the hazards posed by the 101 FEMI issues.

Risk Based Inspection Planning and Scheduling
Blog
November 17, 2014 By John Reynolds at Intertek

One of the most significant advancements to come along in the fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) business in the past two decades is the application of risk-based inspection (RBI) for inspection prioritization, planning, and scheduling. The most important standard for RBI in the petroleum and petrochemical industry is API RP 580.

The Top 10 Reasons for FEMI Failures in the Hydrocarbon Process Industries
September/October 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Based on my 45+ years of experience working with fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) issues in the refining and petrochemical processing industry, this article summarizes what I believe are the top 10 reasons why pressure vessels and piping systems continue to fail, thus causing significant process safety events (e.g. explosions, fires, toxic releases, environmental damage, etc.).

The Top Ten Reasons for Fixed Equipment Mechanical Integrity Failures
Blog
August 11, 2014 By John Reynolds at Intertek

This blog post is the second part of a two part series that assesses the top ten reasons for FEMI failures that cause process safety incidents. The ten reasons I’ve outlined are a result of doing 60+ FEMI audits within refineries and chemical plants in the last 45+ years, tracking 150+ serious FEMI incidents in the petroleum and petrochemical industry and their causes, and defending numerous clients in the industry from lawsuits pertaining to FEMI issues.

The Top Ten Reasons for Fixed Equipment Mechanical Integrity Failures
Blog
July 28, 2014 By John Reynolds at Intertek

Fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) failures are not caused by damage mechanisms; rather, they're caused due to failure to create, implement, and maintain adequate management systems to avoid failures. Nearly all failures that have occurred in our industry could have been avoided if these human systems were more robust and sustainable in providing the primary layers of protection for FEMI.

The Three Tiers of Most Fixed Equipment Mechanical Integrity (FEMI) Programs
May/June 2014 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

There are typically three tiers to pass through for most fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) programs before they reach excellence in FEMI. In my 45 years in the FEMI business, I have observed FEMI programs in all three tiers (phases).

New and Revised Editions of API Standards Just Published
Blog
June 2, 2014 By John Reynolds at Intertek

Three new API standards have been published, and one has been revised and updated to a new edition. The standards are described in this post.

Blog
November 25, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

Without an effective organizational strategy for pressure equipment integrity (PEI), many of the 101 essential elements of PEI can "drop between the chairs" because their may be no management systems (MS) in place to make sure that each element of PEI gets properly planned, scheduled, and completed at appropriate intervals by a responsible party.

Blog
October 28, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

Today’s blog post is a continuation on the 10 essential Management Systems needed for an effective PEI program that can achieve excellence. My previous posts covered the first six of these, including LCM, Risk Assessment and Inspection, and Deterioration Management and Control, among others.

Blog
October 21, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

As I stated in my previous post, there are 10 essential Management Systems (MSs) needed for an effective PEI program that can achieve excellence. These 10 PEI MSs contain all the necessary information that describe what needs to be accomplished, and how to accomplish it, in order to achieve success in PEI.

Blog
October 14, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

There are 10 essential Management Systems (MSs) needed for an effective PEI program that can achieve excellence. These 10 PEI MSs contain all the necessary information that describe what needs to be accomplished, and how to accomplish it, in order to achieve success in PEI.

Blog
October 7, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

Knowing what needs to be accomplished in order to achieve excellence in pressure equipment integrity (PEI) is one thing, but knowing how to organize it all for success is quite another.

Blog
September 30, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

This post concludes the Top 7 reasons why some operating sites "just don’t get it." Reference the previous post for here and here. And for examples of all of the management systems for a sustainable PEI program of excellence, read my article, "The 101 Essential Elements of Pressure Equipment Integrity Management for the Hydrocarbon Process Industry"

Blog
September 23, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

These posts came about because, from time to time, I’m asked why some operating sites don’t seem to pay adequate attention to the need to protect and preserve pressure equipment integrity (PEI). Too often a few sites don’t seem to “get it” until they have a major process safety event associated with a failure of pressure equipment. When that happens, they are suddenly on...

Blog
September 16, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

From time to time, I’m asked why some operating sites don’t seem to pay adequate attention to the need to protect and preserve pressure equipment integrity (PEI). Too often a few sites don’t seem to "get it" until they have a major process safety event associated with a failure of pressure equipment.

Blog
July 22, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

Without doubt management needs to ensure that the appropriate resources (human and budgetary) need to be provided for corrosion control and prevention. The C/M engineer/specialist or other responsible party needs to assure that management is advised annually at the appropriate time what resources will be needed for the next budget cycle.

Blog
July 15, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

This week’s post takes up right where last week’s post left off in our discussion on Corrosion Management and Control (CM&C) Management Systems. Here are the last two Corrosion Management and Control Management Systems.

Blog
July 8, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

This week’s post takes up right where last week’s post left off in our discussion on Corrosion Management and Control (CM&C) Management Systems. As I have said previously, this information is based off a series of articles I did on PEI&R MS, which you can reference here. Here are the next four...

July/August 2013 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

I have written numerous technical articles addressing how to improve your fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) program. This time I will deviate from the FEMI technologies and methodologies to address a topic that may be equally important to improving your FEMI program – managing your manager(s).

Blog
July 1, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

I will emphasize the systems, work processes and procedures for identifying and controlling the rate and types of deterioration in pressure equipment. These are not in any particular order, as they are meant to operate interdependently.

Blog
June 24, 2013 By John Reynolds at Intertek

I have written several articles for Inspectioneering Journal to help create successful programs to achieve excellence in pressure equipment integrity and reliability (PEI&R). To reference my series of articles on PEI&R for background reference, click here. This information may be useful as I will refer to aspects of PEI&R throughout my posts.

May/June 2013 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

One of the reasons we continue to have too many fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) events in the refining and process industries is the lack of understanding and appreciation by site management for the hazards posed by the 101 FEMI issues.

January/February 2013 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

A new API Individual Certification Program (ICP) will be offered soon to certify inspectors who perform quality assurance (QA) surveillance and inspection activities on new materials and equipment for the energy and chemical (E&C) industry. It is being developed by the API with the assistance of numerous, experienced subject matter experts (SMEs) involved in source inspection activities.

Corrosion Control Documents: One High Priority Approach to Minimizing Failures of Fixed Equipment
September/October 2012 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Perhaps the most important work process to achieve success in fixed equipment PEI&R is to create Corrosion Control Documents (CCD’s) for each process unit. In this article, I expand upon that work process in order to guide the interested owner-user in creating CCD’s for their process units.

The Role of Continuous Improvement in Achieving Excellence in Pressure Equipment Integrity and Reliability
July/August 2012 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

This is the last out of the ten articles in this series. Clearly, Continuous Improvement (CI) has a major role in achieving excellence in PEI&R. All the advances we’ve made over the years in achieving excellence in PEI&R stems from our continuous improvement programs to apply new and better techniques and methods by learning from what has already occurred.

January/February 2012 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Clearly, record-keeping and data management have a major role in achieving excellence in pressure equipment integrity and reliability (PEI&R). Everything else we do to achieve excellence in PEI&R stems from keeping high quality and complete PEI&R records, as well as doing all the necessary data analysis.

November/December 2011 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In the first article entitled How to Put It All Together - Guide to Organizing a Successful PEI Program in the current series of articles that I am writing, I provided an overview of the necessary Management Systems (MS) for a successful program to achieve excellence in pressure equipment integrity and reliability (PEI&R). The eighth article in this series will appear in the November/December issue of the Inspectioneering Journal.

September/October 2011 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Three new recommended practices (RP) are under way within the API Inspection Subcommittee (SCI) which will add to the list of SCI standards available to owner-users to improve their mechanical integrity (MI) and inspection programs.

July/August 2011 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In the first article in this series entitled How to Put It All Together - Guide to Organizing a Successful PEI Program, I provided an overview of the necessary Management Systems for a successful program to achieve excellence in pressure equipment integrity. This is the seventh article in that series. Clearly, Codes and Standards have a major role in achieving excellence in Pressure Equipment Integrity and Reliability.

January/February 2011 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In the first article in this series entitled How to Put It All Together - Guide to Organizing a Successful PEI Program, (1) I provided an overview of the necessary Management Systems (MS) for a successful program to achieve excellence in pressure equipment integrity (PEI). This is the sixth article in that series.

Avoiding HTHA Failures in Existing Equipment
November/December 2010 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA) is a long known and still occurring degradation issue for fixed equipment construction materials in the hydrocarbon process industry where hydroprocess plants (hydrogen plus hydrocarbons) are in service. Though HTHA failures in these units are the focus of this article, it is important to recognize that HTHA damage can also occur in high pressure boiler tubes, hydrogen producing units, synthetic gas units, ammonia plants and other equipment where hydrocarbons may not be involved but high temperatures are involved.

September/October 2010 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In the first article in this series entitled How to Put It All Together - Guide to Organizing a Successful PEI Program, (1) I provided an overview of the necessary Management Systems (MS) for a successful program to achieve excellence in pressure equipment integrity (PEI). This is the fifth article in that series. Clearly, Risk Assessment and Inspection Planning have a major role in achieving excellence in Pressure Equipment Integrity and Reliability (PEI&R).

May/June 2010 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Clearly, corrosion prevention and control has a major role in achieving excellence in Pressure Equipment Integrity and Reliability (PEI&R). But there is a lot more to PEI&R than just corrosion control. This article will show how corrosion control has a central role in PEI&R, but will also show how the management system (MS) for corrosion control must be integrated with 9 other important management systems shown in figure 1 in order to achieve excellence in PEI&R.

March/April 2010 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

This article in the series will focus on two more of the necessary MSs for achieving excellence in PEI: Integrity Operating Windows (IOWs) and Management of Change (MOC).

January/February 2010 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Like all of the other 10 MSs in our filing cabinet, this MS on Management Leadership and Support of PEI (shown in Figure 2 below) is vital to success and linked inextricably to all the other PEI MSs.

September/October 2009 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Knowing what needs to be accomplished in order to achieve excellence in pressure equipment integrity (PEI) is one thing, but knowing how to organize it all for success is quite another. I have previously written numerous articles for the IJ about what all needs to be accomplished (1-2). In this article (and 10 articles to come with more details) I will show how to organize all this "PEI stuff" to achieve overall success in order to make sure that everything that needs to be accomplished, is accomplished using management systems (MS) and work process (WP) descriptions.

March/April 2009 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

The ASME Post Construction Committee (PCC) has embarked upon a noble activity to produce a guide to using codes, standards, recommended practices, specifications and guidelines that can be used by manufacturers, owners, users, regulators, engineers and all other stakeholders in the total life cycle management (LCM) of pressure equipment. As most of know, there is a very wide array of such documents available and to the best of my knowledge there is no comprehensive guide to how all these documents can be tied together in the cradle to grave management of pressure equipment, from concept to decommissioning.

November/December 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

After pressure equipment (aka fixed or static equipment) is designed, fabricated, and constructed to new construction codes and standards (C/S), it is placed in-service, at which time the API In-service Inspection (ISI) C/S and ASME Post-Construction C/S begin to govern. Within the API Standards Organization, the Subcommittee on Inspection (SCI) produces and maintains most of the ISI standards that govern in the refining and chemical process industry. Also within the API, the Corrosion and Materials Subcommittee (CMSC) produced many recommended practices that are referenced in the ISI C/S. Within the ASME, the Post Construction Committee (PCC) produces and maintains most of the post construction (means the same as ISI) standards that govern equipment after it has been placed in-service.

July/August 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek, and W. David Wang at Shell Global Solutions

This paper covers most of the common (and some not so common) types of NDE methods for heat exchanger (HX) tubular in-service inspections. In addition to noting some of the various advantages and limitations with these methods, the paper covers heat exchanger tubular inspection planning, data analysis needs, a consequence rating method for scheduling inspection and bundle renewals, tubular cleaning methods and tubular inspection technician qualifications.

How to Prepare for an OSHA NEP Audit
March/April 2008 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

OSHA’s National Emphasis Program (NEP) (1) is now well underway, with 17 of 81 targeted refineries having been reviewed so far (2). OSHA launched the NEP in 2007 after the deadly incident at BP Texas City. As of March this year, OSHA claims to have uncovered 146 violations so far and recommended nearly $1 million in fines.

September/October 2007 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In May of this year, a workshop was presented at the annual NPRA Reliability and Maintenance Conference at the George R. Brown CC in Houston. This article is a reader’s digest summary of what was presented at that workshop by the four panelists.

May/June 2007 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

From time to time, I'm asked why some operating sites don't seem to pay adequate attention to the need to protect and preserve pressure equipment integrity (PEI). Too often a few sites don't seem to "get it" until they have a major process safety event associated with a failure of pressure equipment. And unfortunately when that happens, they are suddenly on board with PEI needs and don't seem to be able to apply their available resources fast enough. Fortunately, I see less and less of this type behavior as time passes and the word spreads throughout the industry about PEI catastrophes and how to avoid them.

March/April 2007 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In the welded condition many stainless steels are susceptible to rapid intergranular corrosion or stress corrosion cracking. This is because the heat from welding sensitizes the base metal heat affected zone (HAZ) and the weld.

March/April 2007 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

A myriad of issues need to be considered before welding to or repairing weld overlayed or clad equipment. (By clad we mean roll-bonded or explosion bonded, i.e. basically 100% metallurgically bonded, and not a loose or seam-welded liner, e.g., not strip lining.)

March/April 2007 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

When we talk about welding QA/QC we typically focus on the technical requirements and what QA/QC is needed to assure that the technical requirements are met. Examples include the preheat, interpass, and PWHT temperatures and how to assure that the correct temperatures and hold times are used.

99 Diseases of Pressure Equipment: Brittle Fracture
January/February 2007 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In previous parts of this series, I have covered many corrosion and degradation issues, some environmental cracking diseases, metallurgical degradation mechanisms, issues associated with welding and some external corrosion problems. In part 14, I’m going to cover one of the most insidious “diseases” associated with process equipment that can and does cause catastrophic pressure equipment failures: brittle fracture.

May/June 2006 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

As noted in the discussion on delayed cracking, when the steel contains hydrogen as a result of service exposure (or corrosion, or high temperature - high pressure hydrogen processing) then a hydrogen bake out may be needed to avoid cracking problems during or after welding.

November/December 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

The API Subcommittee on Inspection, Task Group (T/G) on Inspector Certification is starting to roll out a new program for Inspector Certification Endorsements (ICEP). This program will cover each of several new API Recommended Practices and cover the following subject matters...

September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Temper embrittlement is another form of metallurgical degradation resulting from exposure of susceptible low alloy steels to higher temperature ranges, usually in service, but can occur to some extent even during heat treatment. And, once again, if significant temper embrittlement has occurred, the equipment may be susceptible to catastrophic brittle fracture.

September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Another form of metallurgical degradation at higher temperatures is called sigma phase embrittlement. As the name implies, a metallurgical phase change occurs in some stainless steels when they are heated above about 1000F (540C).

September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Strain-aging problems are another form of metallurgical degradation and thankfully are not very common and becoming less so; but since strain-aging does still occasionally occur, it still makes the list of one of the “99 diseases of pressure equipment”.

September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Metals will slowly deform under stress and higher temperatures by the mechanism known as creep. The amount of creep deformation that will be experienced is highly dependent upon the level of stress, level of temperature and material properties. It is vital that any component operating in the creep range have Integrity Operating Windows (IOW’s) established where upon operators are required to make adjustments if certain temperatures are reached.

September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Spheroidization is a rather technical term that describes a metallurgical aging phenomena that results in loss of mechanical and creep strength. It occurs when carbon and low alloy steels are exposed to temperatures in the range of 850F - 1400F (440C - 760C) where carbide phases (the strengthening element of steels) become unstable and begin to agglomerate, which then results in the loss of strength.

May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Boiler feed water (BFW) corrosion is mostly the result of dissolved oxygen in the feedwater, but is also related to the quality of the BFW and the quality of the treatment system. If the treatment system is effective, then a layer of iron oxide (magnetite) will provide the protection needed to minimize boiler corrosion.

May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

MIC is caused by biological growth, i.e. organic slime (typically bacteria, algae, and fungi) in water under low flow or stagnant conditions. The industry experiences it in cooling water systems, piping, vessels and storage tank bottoms where the conditions are ripe for it.

May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Most all flue gases produced by the combustion of fuels contain contaminants that can condense into acid droplets. The amount of contaminants will determine the concentration of the acid droplets.

May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Cooling water (CW) corrosion may be the oldest form of corrosion in the petrochemical industry, yet the industry still struggles with it for two primary reasons.

March/April 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

One of the more important uses of the 99 Diseases of Hydrocarbon Process Equipment is to determine how to safely operate process pressure equipment. Such a work process thereby minimizes the impact of any potential degradation mechanisms (the 99 Diseases), by establishing the appropriate boundaries for long and short-term safe process operation. Such boundaries are called Integrity Operating Windows (IOW's).

January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

HTHA falls into multiple categories of corrosion mechanisms, including environmentally assisted cracking, hydrogen assisted cracking, and high temperature degradation. Sometimes HTHA is confused with low temperature hydrogen cracking mechanisms that result from hydrogen being driven into steels by aqueous corrosion reactions.

January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Corrosion fatigue is closely related to mechanical and vibration fatigue cracking, except that it is initiated and accelerated by a corrosion mechanism, especially one that gives rise to pitting, from which cracks often initiate. But that corrosion mechanism need not be very severe in order to give rise to corrosion fatigue. Probably the best known case of corrosion fatigue, in a lightly corrosive environment, stems from deaerators in boiler systems.

January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Amine cracking is a form of stress corrosion cracking, which is related to alkaline and carbonate stress corrosion cracking. Amine cracking is often intertwined with wet H2S and carbonate cracking, as amines, carbonates and wet sulfides often exist together in amine treating systems.

November/December 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Unfortunately there is a recurring theme of pressure equipment integrity incidents in the hydrocarbon process industry which has been identified by the API and that is leaks and fires caused by the inadvertent substitution of materials of construction in piping systems - the so called positive materials identification (PMI) incidents.

September/October 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Problems with naphthenic acid corrosion (NAC) are nearly as old as the refining industry. The first paper on the topic that I knew about was written by one of my early industry supervisors over 40 years ago.

September/October 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Unlike NAC where we’re still on a learning curve, the knowledge of corrosion by sulfuric acid has not changed much in the last quarter century, and there are many good references for it included in API RP 571.

September/October 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Corrosion from phosphoric acid is another “old knowledge” corrosion issue that effects only a few processes in the chemical and hydrocarbon process industry.

September/October 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Corrosion from HCl is a significant problem in many refining and chemical process units, and often the materials solution to HCl corrosion is rather expensive, since the lower cost, more available alloys are usually not resistant to most concentrations of HCl.

September/October 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Corrosion in the refining industry from HFA is not as widespread a problem as it is with HCl because it is only associated with HF Alkylation Units, which are usually fairly carefully controlled in order to avoid potential for a toxic HFA cloud after a leak.

July/August 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Though oxidation and sulfidation are quite prevalent high temperature corrosion mechanisms in many of our process units, we now come to a few that are not very common, but still deserve some attention to make sure they don’t lead to unexpected failures.

July/August 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Metal dusting is simply a severe form or extension of carburization in which the extensive carbides that form as a result of carburization lead to grains of metal falling out of the tube or piping and being swept away by the process stream.

July/August 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

High temperature sulfidation is probably the most common high temperature corrosion nemesis in the refining industry, since there are very few “sweet” refineries still in operation. Sulfidation corrosion typically is of concern in sour oil services starting at temperatures in the 500F (260C) range.

July/August 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Decarburization is the antithesis of carburization and rarely results in equipment failure. However, surface decarburization is often a sign that something more serious is going on, ie high temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA), which is well covered in API RP 941, Steels for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures in Petroleum Refineries and Petrochemical Plants.

July/August 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

High temperature oxidation is not a real common type of failure in our industry, but it can and does happen when temperatures exceed design maximums. All metals oxidize, even at room temperature, and in many cases that slow oxidation process actually protects the metal from rapid oxidation.

May/June 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

CUI may be the most well known and widespread corrosion phenomena in our industry. It’s also one of the most difficult to prevent because by and large no matter what precautions we take, water eventually gets into the insulation and begins to do it’s dirty work, sometimes sight unseen until process leakage occurs. And it’s not isolated to just insulation. Corrosion under fire-proofing (CUF) is also prevalent in our industry and requires the same type of inspection planning, design prevention, and mitigation that is required for CUI.

May/June 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

For purposes of this article, external (atmospheric) corrosion is what afflicts process equipment and structural members that are not insulated and exposed to moisture associated with atmospheric conditions, ie rain, condensation from humidity, marine spray, cooling tower mists, industrial pollutants, etc.

May/June 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Chloride cracking of austenitic stainless steels (300 series SS) is an off-shoot of CUI, and there’s nothing really magical about it. If you have insulated solid stainless steel equipment operating in the CUI temperature range you are likely to eventually experience External Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (ECSCC).

May/June 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Soil corrosion (underground corrosion) is another one of those extensively researched and documented types of corrosion, since so many pipes and pipelines are buried and nearly all storage tanks rest on the soil. An entire industry/ technology is associated with preventing soil corrosion (cathodic protection).

March/April 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

ASME has an active Post Construction Committee (PCC) for generating standards for in-service inspection. As such, the ASME is no longer just a "new construction" standardization organization. The Subcommittee on Repair and Testing now has 23 chapters in preparation on various methods of conducting repairs (temporary and permanent) on pressure equipment, tanks and piping.

January/February 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Inadequate PWHT is one of our pressure equipment nemeses. We normally specify PWHT for a variety of pressure equipment integrity reasons including when we need to lower residual stresses, increase resistance to cracking or soften weld hardness. All for the purpose of prolonging the service life of our equipment and preventing unexpected failures. But this issue is clearly where those old sayings of "Buyer beware" and "You don't get what you expect, you get what you inspect" apply quite often.

January/February 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Speaking of stress raisers, they are another insidious type of flaw that can and do lead to equipment failures. Stress raisers (aka stress intensification sites) can be mechanical or metallurgical notches. Undercutting, physical weld flaws, mismatched thicknesses, and sharp geometric intersections can all become stress raisers. But so too can so-called "metallurgical notches" like one finds at the edge of a weld where the cast structure of the weld pool meets the wrought structure of the heat-affected zone. Equipment in many static services without significant cyclic stresses can tolerate the presence of some stress raisers because of hefty code design margins. But equipment in services with significant fatigue stresses (thermal and mechanical) are especially vulnerable to such notches and deserve special QA/QC attention during design, specification, fabrication, and repairs.

January/February 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Cracks along the toe of a weld are not uncommon during fabrication, and can occur for a wide variety of reasons involving the metallurgy and process control of the the same issues covered above on repair welds can apply to repair welds on castings; especially if you are unaware that the foundry or fabricator is trying to salvage a defective casting by covering up porosity and shrinkage cracking with a big glob of weld metal.

January/February 2004 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Repair welds can be another undetected and insidious "fabrication defect" that eventually results in equipment failure. Any experienced metallurgist that has completed numerous failure analyses over the years will tell you that periodically they see failures that initiated at the site of a repair weld. Sometimes those repair welds are field repairs, but not infrequently they occurred during original fabrication and were unknown to the purchaser. Typically our standards and specifications do not cover repairs completed by the fabricator, so they believe they are free to do whatever they want to repair a manufacturing or fabrication defect, then grind it flush, finish the fabrication and ship the product.

November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Hydrogen Embrittlement (HE) is an insidious form of degradation that can strike during equipment fabrication, cleaning, repairs or while in-service. It stems from the infusion of atomic hydrogen into some higher strength steels that then leads to embrittlement, cracking or catastrophic brittle fracture.

November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Liquid Metal Cracking (LMC) (aka "liquid metal embrittlement") is another insidious form of cracking that strikes when you least expect it. It most commonly afflicts austenitic stainless steels, but can afflict other copper, nickel and aluminum alloys. LMC occurs when molten metals come in contact with susceptible materials. One of the more common such occurrences is during a fire when molten zinc from galvanized steel parts or inorganic zinc coatings drips down on SS equipment.

November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Carbonate cracking (CC) of carbon steel has seen an increase recently in frequency and severity in some refinery cat crackers, especially in fractionator and gas processing overheads. Some gas scrubbing units are also susceptible. CC is a form of alkaline stress corrosion cracking that often occurs more aggressively at higher pH and higher concentrations of carbonate solutions.

November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

There are a variety of forms of wet H2S cracking. In this short article I will focus on two of the most common forms: hydrogen induced cracking and stress-oriented hydrogen induced cracking (HIC/ SOHIC). HIC is often fairly innocuous (but not always), while SOHIC is a type of cracking that can easily lead to failure and needs to be mitigated. HIC is a form of tiny blistering damage that is mostly parallel to the surface and to the direction of hoop stress, hence is usually not damaging until it is extensive and affects material properties or gives rise to step-wise cracking that propagates into a weld or begins to go step-wise through the wall.

November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is about as well known as any SCC mechanism can be, so I won't dwell much on it here, but want to mention it for the sake of completeness and hopefully mention something that is not as commonly known about it. Chloride SCC is clearly the bane of austenitic stainless steels and one of the main reasons they are not the "miraclecure" for many corrosion problems.

November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Ammonia stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been around a long time. Most everyone has experienced it from time to time. It's not uncommon in brass tubes in cooling water service that is contaminated with ammonia due to biological growths or other contamination. Sometimes ammonia is added intentionally to process streams as a neutralizer by folks who do not know what it might do to brass tubes. Brass condenser tubes will fail brittlely when bent after they have significant ammonia stress corrosion cracking present. Eddy current inspection of brass tubulars is effective at finding ammonia cracking. Cupro-nickel alloys are usually not susceptible, and if necessary you can upgrade to austenitic stainless steels (which has it's own set of problems).

API Inspection Benchmarking Survey
September/October 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

The API Inspection Subcommittee has issued the second edition of their inspection benchmarking survey. We are encouraging as many sites, worldwide, to participate as possible, so that we have the most amount of data available for analysis and conclusions.

July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Cavitation is the sudden formation and immediate collapse of vapor or air bubbles in a liquid stream when system pressure falls below the vapor pressure of the liquid. The sudden collapse of these tiny bubbles generates enormous, though tiny forces that mechanically damage (erode) metal (often on pump impellers or just downstream of let down valves).

July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Few of us have not experienced or heard about vibration fatigue (cracking) failures, especially around pumps and compressors. Typically small branch connections, equalizer lines, vents and drains are susceptible, especially if they are screwed connections. Such failures have often led to safety and reliability events because of the sudden release of flammable hydrocarbons.

July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Graphitization is not something that operators can do much about, and thankfully it is not very common. We as engineers and inspectors have to know about this one and prevent it or detect it. It occurs when the microstructure of some carbon and low alloy steels breaks down after long exposure to elevated temperatures, like in FCCU's.

July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

This is the name given to a form of embrittlement that occurs in 400 series of stainless steels, duplex SS's and less commonly in some 300 series stainless steels containing a metallurgical phase called ferrite. The embrittlement occurs from 600 F to 1000 F, but most readily at a temperature of 885 F, hence the name.

July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Thermal shock is another one of those pressure equipment afflictions where communication with operating groups is a vital factor in prevention. Thermal shock failures usually involve sudden quenching of high temperature equipment and furnace tubes with a relatively cooler liquid or saturated steam containing some liquid, but not always.

A New API Recommended Practice, API RP 577
May/June 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

A new recommended practice from the API is in the final stages of preparation before publications. It is API RP 577 on Welding Inspection and Metallurgy.

New API Inspector Recertification Program
May/June 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Next year, the API Inspector Recertification Program (ICP) will be recertifying inspectors who have held their API certifications for more than 6 years. Things have changed this time though, and inspectors will be required to pass a short exam covering material that has changed in the past 6 years.

January/February 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Now you say, he's got to be putting me on. What is green rot? I didn't invent it. I first read about it in one of the early texts on corrosion engineering by Ughlig or Fontana, the venerable corrosion professors at MIT & Ohio State. But when I experienced it, it became very real, even though I've only seen it once in my 35-year career.

January/February 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

This failure mechanism is unfortunately all too common in our industry. It's also known as stress rupture, and it is usually entirely preventable by proper maintenance and operating procedures. It occurs when equipment, piping or furnace tubes that are designed to operate safely and reliably in one temperature range are suddenly (and sometimes not so suddenly) exposed to higher temperatures.

January/February 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

I already mentioned this common affliction in the introduction. Caustic cracking was long called caustic embrittlement, but since no embrittlement actually occurs that name is fading away.

January/February 2003 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Another affliction that is becoming more common as we start to get more and more of our components from developing countries, is that high carbon contents and high micro-alloy contents will make some components relatively unweldable under normal circumstances.

November/December 2002 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

An effort is currently underway to create a new code for in-service inspection and maintenance of pressure equipment in the hydrocarbon process industry. The API Committee on Refinery Equipment (CRE) and the ASME Board on Pressure Technology Codes & Standards (BPTCS) have agreed to explore the idea by putting together a joint task group that would report to both organizations. That group will be meeting soon to put together a set of committee operating procedures and the scope/objective of the document for approval by the API CRE & ASME BPTCS. Once the charter/scope and operating procedures are approved by both societies, a committee will be assembled to accomplish the task.

September/October 2002 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In May 2002, after 6 years of preparation, the API published the first edition of API 580 Risk-based Inspection. The document is now an ANSI/API Standard, which was balloted and approved using the ANSI consensus process for creating American National Standards. As such it becomes a "recognized and generally accepted good engineering practice", for use by all companies in the oil and chemical industry.

January/February 2001 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Part 5 of this article continues to outline the 101 essential elements that need to be in place, and functioning well, to effectively and efficiently, preserve and protect the reliability and integrity of pressure equipment (vessels, exchangers, furnaces, boilers, piping, tanks, relief systems) in the refining, gas processing and petrochemical industry.

November/December 2000 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Part 4 of this article continues to outline the 101 essential elements that need to be in place, and functioning well, to effectively and efficiently, preserve and protect the reliability and integrity of pressure equipment (vessels, exchangers, furnaces, boilers, piping, tanks, relief systems) in the refining and petrochemical industry.

September/October 2000 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

This article continues to outline the 101 essential elements that need to be in place, and functioning well, to effectively and efficiently, preserve and protect the reliability and integrity of pressure equipment (vessels, exchangers, furnaces, boilers, piping, tanks, relief systems) in the refining and petrochemical industry.

101 Essential Elements in a Pressure Equipment Integrity Management Program for the Hydrocarbon Process Industry Part 2
July/August 2000 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

This paper outlines the 101 essential elements that need to be in place, and functioning well, to effectively and efficiently, preserve and protect the reliability and integrity of pressure equipment (vessels, exchangers, furnaces, boilers, piping, tanks, relief systems) in the refining and petrochemical industry.

101 Essential Elements in a Pressure Equipment Integrity Management Program for the Hydrocarbon Process Industry
May/June 2000 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

This is the first of a series of articles that outlines the 101 essential elements that need to be in place, and functioning well, to preserve and protect the reliability and integrity of pressure equipment (vessels, exchangers, furnaces, boilers, piping, tanks, relief systems) in the refining and petrochemical industry.

March/April 2000 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Two API projects are co-sponsoring an effort to develop a risk based inspection (RBI) method for atmospheric storage tanks (AST). One of the projects is the long standing RBI project that is developing RBI methods for all types of pressure equipment; and the other is the more recently formed group that is focused on developing risk assessment methods for oil and gasoline terminals and other storage tank facilities. This article covers the preliminary model that has been proposed for both projects by the joint contractor for both projects, DNV. As such, this model is a draft and still undergoing review and revision by the two API project groups.

September/October 1999 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

This is part three of a three part article for the IJ describing some of the advanced on-stream inspection (OSI) methods available for use in inspection of pressure equipment in the petroleum and petrochemical industry. These methods can be used, under the right circumstances, to supplement or in lieu of invasive and turnaround inspections, usually at much lower cost. Cost savings associated with using OSI techniques in lieu of internal inspection may include lower total inspection costs, lower turnaround costs, avoiding lost production opportunities, and avoiding vessel cleaning and decontamination costs. On-stream inspection also avoids the safety hazards associated with confined space entry of vessels. However, to achieve these savings and benefits, and still maintain high levels of pressure equipment integrity, the owner-user must understand the technologies in order to intelligently select, apply and interpret the results of these nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods.

July/August 1999 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek, and Mark Bell at Ethos Mechanical Integrity Solutions

This is part two of a three part article describing some of the advanced on-stream inspection (OSI) methods available for use in inspection of pressure equipment in the petroleum and petrochemical industry. These methods can be used, under the right circumstances, to supplement or in lieu of invasive and turnaround inspections, usually at much lower cost. Cost savings associated with using OSI techniques in lieu of internal inspections may include lower total inspection costs, lower turnaround costs, avoiding lost production opportunities, and avoiding vessel cleaning and decontamination costs.

May/June 1999 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek, and Mark Bell at Ethos Mechanical Integrity Solutions

This three-part article describes some of the advanced on-stream inspection (OSI) methods available for use in inspection of pressure equipment in the petroleum and petrochemical industry. These methods can be used, under the right circumstances, to supplement or in lieu of invasive and turnaround inspections, usually at much lower cost. Cost savings associated with using OSI techniques in lieu of internal inspections may include lower total inspection costs, lower turnaround costs, avoiding lost production opportunities, and avoiding vessel cleaning and decontamination costs. On-stream inspection also avoid the safety hazards associated with confined space entry of vessels. However, to achieve these savings and benefits, and still maintain high levels of pressure equipment integrity, the owner-user must understand the technologies in order to intelligently select, apply and interpret the results of these nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods.

March/April 1999 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Some Middle Eastern and European operators are now using AE successfully to screen tanks for internal inspection by listening for active tank bottom corrosion, and then grading the tank as high, medium or low need for internal inspection.

November/December 1998 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In Part 1 of this article, in the last edition of the IJ, I introduced the work process that we use to assess the effectiveness of our pressure equipment integrity (PEI) management. It involves a self-assessment workbook filled out by site personnel, which is in turn reviewed and validated by a team of company auditors from outside the site. I also introduced the seven major categories of assessment that we conduct.

September/October 1998 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In this first part of a two-part article, I will outline a process that our company uses to review and measure the effectiveness of our pressure equipment integrity management process. Then in Part 2, next issue, I will "fill in the blanks" on some specific issues that we measure.

September/October 1997 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

This is the fourth in a series of articles on piping inspection that I'm writing for the Journal. One of the previous ones dealt with improving thickness data taking accuracy with digital ultrasonic methods. This article is a "sister article" that deals with improving the accuracy of profile radiographic inspection techniques, also called isotope radiography, wall shots, or tangential radiographic inspection.

May/June 1997 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In the Jan/Feb issue of the IJ, I mentioned how important the Management of Change (MOC) process is when it comes to maintaining safe, leak-free piping systems; stating that we in the inspection business cannot do it alone; that is, we taint the integrity of piping systems without a lot of help from operating personnel and operations support engineers.

March/April 1997 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

This is the second in a series of articles on piping inspection. In the last article, I enumerated four inspection issues that I believe contribute to inadequate piping mechanical integrity in the hydrocarbon process industry.

January/February 1997 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

It's probably more important to those of us who don't have a brain tumor. Unfortunately, it's precisely because piping inspection is not neurosurgery that it's often done poorly, which can lead to significant impacts on process unit reliability, or worse, a catastrophic event, where people can get hurt.

November/December 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Three levels of risk based inspection have been developed by the API sponsor group. Level 1: Qualitative RBI which utilizes a step-by-step workbook to rank entire process units or process systems into a 5 x 5 risk matrix...

September/October 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In the January 1995 issue, I introduced the concept of Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) being developed by an API (American Petroleum Institute) project. This article is an update and status report on that project, which now has 20 sponsor companies, and more joining each quarter.

March/April 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Are your jurisdictional boiler and/or pressure vessel rules and regulations too stringent, too costly, too bureaucratic, without adding real safety value commensurate with the time and resources necessary for compliance? Are you having to hire third party inspectors to perform boiler and/or pressure vessel inspections, when you have fully qualified, competent inspection resources on staff? Are you having to shut down safe, reliable boilers and/or pressure vessels annually (or bi-annually) just to comply with outdated boiler and/or pressure vessel (B&PV) inspection requirements? If the answer to any of these questions is "yes" for your company, read on: you may be interested to know that times are changing.

January/February 1996 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

There are a lot of vital roles in the success of any refinery or petrochemical process plant. But none are more important to success than that filled by the pressure equipment inspector (PEI). Years back, we recognized that world class pressure equipment integrity and reliability was critical to our success. Engineering management knew that if we didn't have that, we could not succeed in our business strategy, no matter how good we were at all other necessary functions.

November/December 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In our inspection organizations, we have identified a number of critical success factors (CSF's) which are vitally important if we are to achieve the level of pressure equipment reliability and integrity to which we aspire. One of our CSF's is the level of service provided to our refineries and chemical plant sites by our Nondestructive Examination Technical Direction Team.

September/October 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

In August of 1993, the hydrocarbon process industry once again experienced a catastrophic loss when a major coker unit fire occurred in Louisiana. The cause of that incident was not unlike many others that have occurred over the years throughout the industry: inadvertent substitution of construction materials.

July/August 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Late in 1994, the API surveyed their committee on refining equipment members in order to provide benchmarking information on the extent of Pressure Equipment Inspection (PEI) activities and programs underway at member companies.

May/June 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

As chairman of the API Inspection Subcommittee, one of the questions I often receive involves the difference between the API Pressure Vessel Inspection Code (API-510) and the National Board Inspection Code (NBIC).

March/April 1995 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Many promising advances are being made in inspection technologies, today. Some are going to provide opportunities for companies to maintain and increase equipment mechanical integrity, quite possibly at lower costs.


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