Inspectioneering

Integripedia Topic
Downstream

Explore this topic

The Oil and Gas industry is commonly divided into the three major sectors: Upstream, which includes oil and gas exploration and production; Midstream, which includes the transportation and storage of oil and gas; and Downstream, which refers to the refining and processing of crude oil and natural gas, as well as the marketing and distribution of petroleum-based products, including gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, natural gas liquids, and many others.

Petrochemical manufacturing is commonly lumped in with Downstream O&G as the chemical products derived from hydrocarbons during the refining process (e.g., ethylene, propylene, benzene, etc.) are broken down into a multitude of derivatives that can be used to produce thousands of products that we use every day.

Topic Tools

Share this Topic

Contribute to Definition

We welcome updates to this Integripedia definition from the Inspectioneering community. Click the link below to submit any recommended changes for Inspectioneering's team of editors to review.

Contribute to Definition
Articles about Downstream
Blog

Quantifying corrosion for different crude fractions allows planners the ability to mix and match crude blends alternatively to achieve pre-set metal loss and reliability goals. This flexibility has significant implications for extensive cost savings.

July/August 2021 Inspectioneering Journal

This article examines the quantitative tank RBI method found in API 581 and discusses uses for tank RBI other than deferral of scheduled internal inspections.

Authors: Joel Andreani
September/October 2020 Inspectioneering Journal

Implementing RBI as part of a Mechanical Integrity system at different sites is not a simple copy and paste project. Each case has its own characteristics and challenges. This article describes implementation in two vastly different facilities.

September/October 2020 Inspectioneering Journal

COVID-19 has forced organizations to adapt. The old way of doing business, at least for some, is gone and will not return. In these challenging times, innovation is key. But is implementing a new innovation today any different than twelve months ago?

Authors: John Natarelli
July/August 2020 Inspectioneering Journal

Inspectioneering and Pinnacle co-hosted their 6th bi-annual Meeting of the Minds roundtable discussion earlier this year. This meeting’s focus was on how Covid-19 and the decline in oil prices have affected MI programs across the industry.

Authors: Jeremiah Wooten
Partner Content

Our proprietary furnace tube inspection system, FTIS is an ultrasonic inspection technology capable of rapid, automated fired heater coil inspection in refinery fired heaters. The data captured by our furnace tube inspection system is...

Blog

Who is Inspector Frank? It is a valid question but I don’t want it answered specifically for some obvious reasons. I will share what I can though...

Authors: Inspector Frank
July/August 2020 Inspectioneering Journal

This article presents a model to better predict the corrosivity of hot crude oil streams, which is based on open literature going back for almost 60 years and incorporates published information from joint industry projects (JIPs).

Blog

Trying too hard to bring attention to the myriad concerns of a robust equipment integrity program can end up backfiring on you. You don’t want to be the “inspector who cried wolf” with no one listening when you actually have a problem.

Authors: Inspector Frank
Blog

COVID-19 is disrupting all industries including asset management. Here are 6 recommendations to help you align your asset management according to new requirements and turn the challenges into opportunities.

Authors: Frank-Uwe Hess
Blog

In a nutshell, Schwerpunkt means focusing your force in the area it will be the most effective. As a strategy, it means overall strategic intent has to be known and understood by everyone. All levels know their part in the plan.

Authors: Inspector Frank
Partner Content

LOTIS utilizes laser profilometry to conduct internal steam reformer tube inspections. The data captured by LOTIS is exceptionally powerful when combined with our LifeQuest™ remaining life assessment capabilities, providing an integrated...

Blog

When paired with the right software, the RBWS process can lead to significant reductions in turnaround work scopes. However, some software tools have distinct advantages over others.

Authors: Abby King
Blog

I once worked with a chief inspector who refused to hire anyone who had any National Board inspection certifications. “Why?”, you might ask. I had the same question, and his response was “Because anyone with National Board is gunning for my...

Authors: Inspector Frank
Blog

At the end of every year, the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) releases its annual list of the 10 most frequently cited safety and health violations for the fiscal year. Although the list rarely sees...

Authors: Jeremiah Wooten
Blog

This article discusses two common challenges for inspectors taking thickness readings in high temperature environments and ways to overcome those challenges.

Authors: Calvin Jory
Blog

Critical things often get missed in facilities but are these things being owned and fixed? We get good at reactively solving problems as they appear, but are we proactively working towards examining and fixing the potential larger issues?

Authors: Inspector Frank
Partner Content

Auto-refrigeration can impose low temperatures onto process vessels and piping causing them to be at risk of brittle fracture, the sudden break-before leak phenomena that can result in catastrophic rupture of the equipment.

September/October 2019 Inspectioneering Journal

This article presents two cases studies demonstrating how properly conducting baseline fired heater tube inspection aids in early discovery and correction of defects, avoiding unexpected in-service failures, and more.

Authors: Tim Haugen
September/October 2019 Inspectioneering Journal

Thickness readings are critical for today's inspectors to accurately judge the state of their equipment. Recent advancements in sensors, software, and data management tools have made this easier, safer, and more efficient than ever before.

Blog

Developing a comprehensive turnaround (TA) work scope for process equipment is a critical step for achieving a facility's business goals. Risk Based Work Selection is a proven process for prioritizing and optimizing planned work for an impending TA.

Blog

Risk Based Work Selection (RBWS) is an industry best practice used to help refiners better-manage the safety and reliability of operations for a facility. When properly conducted, RBWS can help refiners optimize major turnaround projects.

July/August 2019 Inspectioneering Journal

Major maintenance events require proper planning, scheduling, and execution to achieve a successful outcome. An outage assessment process can deliver an effort that is safe, on budget, on schedule, and ensures long term plant equipment reliability.

Authors: Stephen Thomas
Partner Content

FFS assessment techniques are applicable to a wide range of damage types: LTA's, cracks, creep damage, dents, and more. These are very powerful analytical tools that often allow operators to not only keep the plant running, but to keep it running...

July/August 2019 Inspectioneering Journal

Tanks are ubiquitous and essential in industrial societies. When they fail, the consequences can be dire if products/volumes they store are explosive and/or toxic.

Authors: Ana Benz
Blog

Just because you have a technical expert does not mean they will be an expert at managing people. Like any skill set, it takes training, time, and mentoring to become a good personnel manager.

Authors: Inspector Frank
Blog

This is the first article in a new column. In each article, the author will share technical, thought-provoking, and sometimes humorous or emotional experiences garnered in a career that spans over 20 years inside the gates of facilities.

Authors: Inspector Frank
Blog

This blog will walk through practical steps for managing IOWS and will demonstrate what successful IOW management can look like.

Authors:
Blog

What do you do when you first discover a mechanical failure? Maybe your pipe sprang a leak, a drive shaft snapped, or a welded joint fractured, and you need to find out why. This infographic details some steps you can take to avoid critical mistakes.

Partner Content

It’s a scary thought to think that with all the new advancements in technology, some facilities still rely on traditional inspection contractors that perform out of date procedures. You rely on technology to keep your home and identity safe, so...

Blog

Young asset integrity management professionals need effective tools to create a sustainable future. YPAC surveyed members to establish a baseline measurement of the effectiveness of their professional development and to evaluate perceived gaps.

Authors: Molly Beckel
Blog

The 2019 API Inspection and Mechanical Integrity Summit will be kicking off later this month in Galveston, TX. This four-day event will begin with 14 high level training courses offered Monday, January 28th, and then a top notch conference and...

Authors: John Reynolds
Blog

At the end of every year, the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) releases its annual list of the 10 most frequently cited safety and health violations for the fiscal year. Although the list rarely sees...

Authors: Jeremiah Wooten
November/December 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

This article provides an overview of the key components in establishing IOWs, the levels of IOW limits, and the basic principles and application of API Recommended Practice 584 to achieve reliable fired heater performance.

Authors: Tim Hill
September/October 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

This article discusses the advances in NDE that have given owners increased confidence on how to assess equipment integrity in HTHA service providing risk prioritization of equipment as well as providing the ability to make more reliable...

Partner Content

How long does it take for you to receive reports after an inspection has been completed? A week? A month? Does the data come from multiple sources with no way of knowing if it has been manipulated? Traditional inspection contractors do not have...

September/October 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

The most valuable unit of measure within a turnaround is not money, but time. Successful turnaround planners are now integrating the Detailed Inspection Planner (DIP) within their teams to increase the accuracy of planning and reduce the time...

May/June 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

According to API 570, facilities must have a mechanical integrity program in place for critical check valves. But what criteria determines whether or not a check valve is critical in your process? How should check valves be inspected and by whom?

May/June 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

This article presents a case study from a Middle Eastern refinery that explores a heat exchanger that failed unexpectedly after five years in service. There are multiple initiators that can cause under deposit corrosion (UDC) in heat exchangers in...

May/June 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

This article details the experience an oil company had when using FEA to evaluate the implications of a damaged pipeline. Specifically, it presents an efficient method that combines analytical techniques with FEA to determine the pipeline’s...

Blog

API's biannual meeting pertaining to downstream equipment standards was held in Seattle, Washington this past April. We've summarized some of the discussions and meetings of that you may find interesting, including the 2019 API Inspection and MI...

Authors: John Reynolds
Partner Content

Integrating a new digital technology that combines data-driven insights and data storage with innovative mobility can provide a new level of connected intelligence. Digitalization can improve workflow, increase worker productivity and allow better...

March/April 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

This article demonstrates how the use of APM software can help prevent unplanned downtime by quickly identifying potential hidden failures.

March/April 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

This article features a case study on the feasibility of a wall-sticking drone for effectively conducting ultrasonic testing and other NDT methods on equipment at elevated heights.

Authors: Rami Mattar
March/April 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

This article demonstrates the process of converting API RP 576, Inspection of Pressure-Relieving Devices, into a work process that is suitable for conversion into a job procedure. It also explores some lessons learned that will make the document...

Authors: Keith Lapeyrouse
March/April 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

Hot spots – localized areas of overheating in pressure equipment – can lead to deformation or even loss of process containment. It is important to understand the effects of elevated temperature caused by hot spots on the mechanical integrity of...

March/April 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

This article is designed to help the reader better communicate their FEMI Mission, Vision, Core Values and Responsibilities to all stakeholders at their site.

Authors: John Reynolds
Partner Content

Training options to meet your needs. E²G contracts with API to deliver training programs for FFS, Risk–Based Inspection, Damage Mechanisms, and Pressure Relieving Systems. ETI and Customized Training offers specialized courses based on industry...

March/April 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

Last November, Inspectioneering and PinnacleART hosted a roundtable discussion for a select group of leading mechanical integrity experts. This forum explored how the MI field will have to prepare for the impending loss of knowledge resulting from...

Authors: Tyler Alvarado
January/February 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

Sea water corrosion and erosion issues can affect almost all commonly used metallurgy in a refinery or petrochemical plant. This brief article explains the dangers behind sea water used in plant cooling systems and discusses several metallurgical...

Authors: Ashfaq Anwer
January/February 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

The actions you take immediately after a failure are critical in understanding the cause and appropriate steps to remedy the problem. However, the wrong moves might prevent you from getting the answers you need.

Authors: Neil Burns
January/February 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

Most of us that work integrity and reliability understand what we do and how we do it. But how many of us understand WHY we do things? Understanding the motives behind our activities, initiatives and programs can help to galvanize and lay a...

Authors: Greg Alvarado
January/February 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

Teams planning and executing turnarounds are obliged to not only stay within budget, but to reduce or eliminate the need to spend the contingency allowance. This article introduces a risk-based approach to help avoid squandering finances.

Authors: Mark Rigdon
Partner Content

What do you need: CONSULTING - Subject matter experts, consultants, or team of highly skilled engineers to help solve my problem. SOFTWARE - My team requires software, products, or resources that will solve the problem. TRAINING - I require...

January/February 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

Cleaning of heat exchangers and other process equipment is typically done with the use of pressurized water (e.g., hydro-blasting). However, in some situations thermal decomposition, a technique that utilizes heat rather than water to break down...

Authors: Kyle Dunn
January/February 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

This article, the first of a multi-part series, discusses the methodology and need for establishing an integrated and holistic framework for managing asset integrity on a day-to-day basis.

Authors: Mohamed Attia
January/February 2018 Inspectioneering Journal

Given the concern throughout industry regarding the potential for brittle fracture failures, PWHT guidance to address potential issues arising from the recent changes in PWHT code requirements for carbon steel is examined in this article, and...

Blog

Infrared (IR) thermometry has been used for over forty years to monitor tube metal temperatures in refining and chemical furnaces. Recently, IR thermometry has been criticized in the industry for delivering inaccurate readings; however, this is...

Blog

Last October, we saw the State of California implement its “PSM for Refineries” standard and now the State of Washington’s Division of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) appears to be following suit, releasing draft language to adopt a...

Authors: Daniel J. Grucza
Partner Content

In today's chemical and refining industries, sustained long term reliability of facilities is critical to profitability and competitiveness. In fact, history shows that differences in operating expenses between best-in-class refineries, and poor...

Blog

The U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has released its annual list of the 10 most frequently cited safety and health violations. In 2017 Fall Protection, Hazard Communication, and Scaffolding once again...

November/December 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

This article explains the Statistically Active Corrosion Assessment, which is a tool for determining appropriate and realistic corrosion growth rates which can assist pipeline operators in optimizing the value of in-line inspection data.

November/December 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

In this exclusive interview, you’ll hear from Eddie Acosta, Reliability Manager at Placid Refining. During our discussion, he shared some of their challenges, strategies, and a transparent glimpse into some the real issues in his 82,000 bpd...

November/December 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

In-service equipment failures present a considerable challenge to reliability engineers. This article presents a case study of a convection tube failure in a furnace and the analyses that were performed to understand the root cause and determine the...

Authors: James R. Widrig
Blog

Industry SME John Reynolds provides his bi-annual updates from the API Standards Meeting and discusses developments related to the 2019 API Inspection Summit, SCIMI codes, standards, and recommended practices, and the API Individual Certification...

Authors: John Reynolds
Partner Content

Inspectioneering and API have teamed up to create the Mechanical Integrity Professional Initiative. The goal of this project is to raise the benchmark on industry knowledge and develop the next generation of SMEs. We believe that equipping MI...

September/October 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

Detailed operations planning and scheduling is an essential, yet often marginalized, element of an effective turnaround. To increase the likelihood of executing successful turnarounds, facilities should create and update sound operational shutdown...

Authors: Lee Williamson
September/October 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

Amine systems that scrub H2S from hydrogen-rich gas experience rapid fouling of the heat transfer equipment, especially in a hot summer. Learn how temporary cooling solutions can improve process conditions during critical periods of the year with no...

Authors: Massimo Capra
Blog

The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recently released a new guide to help petroleum refiners comply with its Process Safety Management (PSM) standard (1910.119). The guide presents lessons learned from the petroleum...

Authors: Jeremiah Wooten
Blog

How do you make decisions in regards to your mechanical integrity program? There are many voices out there offering advice; could be a co-worker, could be a trusted associate from another company or facility. But don't underestimate the power of...

Authors: Nick Schmoyer
July/August 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

Composite technology developed for pipeline repair can be a cost-effective method of improving safety while keeping maintenance costs down. However, composite materials present significant challenges to conventional NDT methods.

Partner Content

Piping accounts for roughly 40% of “accidental releases” at major petroleum facilities. Modern robots can inspect every inch of piping while still in service, giving you a clear picture of your most concerning areas.

July/August 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

Most plants have pieces of equipment with chronic problems that impact profitability due to the frequency of outages, cost of repairs, and lost production. It is critical that specific actions are taken to identify and eliminate these “Bad...

Authors: Rick Hoffman
July/August 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

In deflagration incidents, electrical arcs and electrostatic sparks are often considered to be primary ignition sources. However, there are a variety of other ignition sources. Do you consider mechanical equipment and the significant non-electrical...

Authors: Richard W. Prugh
May/June 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

Effective condition monitoring location selection is a key component of a best-in-class mechanical integrity program. Learn how moving beyond traditional qualitative approaches to optimized CML selection can reduce risk and maximize the value of...

May/June 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

Read a firsthand account of how organizing Process, People, Plant, and Performance can reveal breakdowns in your corrosion management practices and drive down corrosion related leaks.

Authors: David E. Moore
March/April 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

Myths, challenges, and good practices related to process piping integrity management activities that help inspection and maintenance managers make the right decisions to develop cost-effective piping inspection plans without compromising the...

Partner Content

Gecko's robots cover up to 150 square feet per minute and can perform inspections internally or externally. We combine logistical simplicity, speed, and a range of inspection strategies to provide a targeted and economical solution for tank...

March/April 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

Inspectioneering Founder & Chief Editor, Greg Alvarado, recently had the privilege to sit down with Clay White, Director of Mechanical Integrity for Phillips 66 (Downstream), to discuss the world of fixed equipment reliability in the refining and...

Authors: Greg Alvarado
March/April 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

Flare systems provide hydrocarbon facilities with safe and efficient discharge of relief and waste gases by controlled open flame burning. This article provides information on the selection, inspection, and maintenance of various types of flares.

Authors: Ibrahim Kodssi
March/April 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

This article discusses the use of the RBI methodology supplemented by a well-designed IOW program to assess and manage aging in fixed equipment and piping in hydrogen generation units.

January/February 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

Evaluating remaining wall thickness of an asset is not enough to ensure its continued safe operation. Proactive strategies should be implemented to assess the entire environment affecting an asset’s condition, including the development of more...

January/February 2017 Inspectioneering Journal

This article presents a perspective on the human factor and emphasizes the value of using risk tools at all levels in the organization to help provide management focus during times of severe economic pressure.

Partner Content

Floodlight Software digitalizes inspection and testing operations and eliminates paper forms, filing cabinets, and spreadsheets. Your inspection forms plus our software equals a user-friendly mobile interface for inspectors and a robust reporting...

Blog

At the end of every year, the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) releases a list of the 10 most frequently cited safety and health violations for the fiscal year, comprised from approximately 32,000...

Authors: Jeremiah Wooten
November/December 2016 Inspectioneering Journal

This article describes a high-level dead leg integrity management program overview and is based on experience, knowledge, and adaptation of inspection management philosophies currently being implemented within the Oil & Gas and the petrochemical...

Authors: Mohamed Amer
Blog

The Fall API Standards Meeting was incredibly productive and addressed, among other issues, the API Inspection Summit, balloting for the 11th edition of API 510, and improvements to the inspection section of each damage mechanism in API RP 571.

Authors: John Reynolds
Online Article

Vacuum distillation plays a critical role in improving yields for petroleum refiners by producing high-value petroleum products out of the heavier oils left over from atmospheric distillation. When short-term disturbances cause temporary cooling...

Authors: Massimo Capra
July/August 2016 Inspectioneering Journal

This article summarizes a recent finite element analysis (FEA)-based study that employs creep simulation techniques to investigate the elevated temperature response of piping with peaked longitudinal weld seams.

Partner Content

TEAM’s integrated touch point corrosion program manages all aspects of the integrity process from screening for damage to permanent repair assuring integrity – every time. TEAM’s unique turn-key approach to touch point corrosion integrity...

July/August 2016 Inspectioneering Journal

An explanation of refractory including its uses and recent advancements in abrasion-resistant materials, dry-out/cure times, improved installation methods, and anchoring systems.

Authors: Jackson Espinoza
July/August 2016 Inspectioneering Journal

Joint integrity management remains at the top of many operators’ priority list.  The discipline considers risk and drives safety to ensure we learn necessary lessons from past catastrophic failures, such as the Piper Alpha explosion in 1988,...

Authors: Neil Ferguson
July/August 2016 Inspectioneering Journal

An overview of process piping vibration and evaluating piping systems in vibration service to reduce harmful vibrations.

Online Article

Inspectioneering recently had the opportunity to chat with Jim Weynand, Chief Revenue Officer for Check-6, a global leader in accelerating human performance. Our discussion focused on the effect human factors have on plant operations and how...

Authors: Jeremiah Wooten
Online Article

Inspectioneering recently had the opportunity to chat with Kent Cheese, Vice President of Marketing and Sales for Bureau Veritas, a global leader in testing, certification and inspection. Mr. Cheese has more than 20 years of experience working...

Authors: Jeremiah Wooten
Partner Content

TEAM believes that quality inspections are the key to reliability. Our inspection crews are made up of specialty trained, experienced technicians who adhere to the highest quality standards. Our API 653 inspectors deliver thorough, reliable...

Online Article

Summertime requires refiners to push even harder on certain equipment, such as the Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU), alkylation unit, and reformers to be able to meet increased demand. Warmer ambient temperatures can negatively affect process...

Authors: Jason Mallett
March/April 2016 Inspectioneering Journal

In numerous industries that require elemental and material testing, including the oil and gas, power generation, and petrochemical industries, positive material identification (PMI) is at the forefront of any operation. In fact, an increasing number...

Authors: Mark Lessard
March/April 2016 Inspectioneering Journal

While there are many methods for measuring equipment wall thickness, a predominant method used in the O&G and power generation industries is portable ultrasonic equipment. Ultrasonic testing is non-intrusive because it is applied to the outside of a...

Online Article

Inspectioneering recently had the opportunity to chat with Barney Smith, Turnaround Manager at Aggreko, a global leader in power, heating, cooling, and oil-free compressor rental solutions. Our discussion focused on catalyst cooling during...

Authors: Jeremiah Wooten
January/February 2016 Inspectioneering Journal

In Part 1 of this 2-part series, published in the July/August 2015 issue of Inspectioneering Journal, I discussed corrosion control methods and some effective techniques for inspecting ASTs, and also identified several root causes of AST failures in...

Partner Content

In this interim report, Pinnacle analysts take data from the oil refining industry and dive into how that key sector is being affected by reliability today. Download your free copy!

January/February 2016 Inspectioneering Journal

Heat exchangers operating in refineries or petrochemical plants must be thoroughly cleaned and inspected throughout their operational lifetime to ensure safe and efficient operations.

Authors: Harold Marburger
January/February 2016 Inspectioneering Journal

The enormous decline in oil prices over the past 14 months has definitely slowed projects and changed the energy and production landscape. Despite this, refineries, petrochemical plants, and chemical facilities must continue to run safely,...

Authors: Greg Alvarado
January/February 2016 Inspectioneering Journal

Equipment integrity and reliability programs are essential for refinery and chemical facility operators. The processes of the programs are developed to ensure safety, optimize component life cycles, and promote smooth and economical operations.

January/February 2016 Inspectioneering Journal

Fixed equipment in a refinery can be susceptible to corrosion from the process side, necessitating an inspection strategy to understand the condition of that equipment. Online measurement of pipe and pressure vessel wall thickness is made possible...

Authors: Dr. Jake Davies
Blog

We at Inspectioneering would like to take this opportunity to thank all of our subscribers, followers, clients, and industry partners for a great 2015, and wish every member of the Inspectioneering community a happy and healthy 2016!

Authors: Jeremiah Wooten
Partner Content

How is reliability affecting your bottom line? Download our Economics of Reliability report, where Pinnacle analysts take data from the oil refining industry and dive into how that key sector is being affected by reliability today.

September/October 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

This newly issued (28 August, 2003) document reports the results of discussions with representatives of refining firms, technologies, and services providers, research institutions, and other organizations on current and future trends in the U.S....

September/October 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Inspectioneering recently had the opportunity to sit down with Texas Railroad Commissioner Ryan Sitton and discuss the evolution of reliability in the oil and gas industry.

Authors: Jeremiah Wooten
September/October 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Operators in all industries are trying to increase equipment availability, yet oftentimes critical process equipment is not available due to planned or unplanned maintenance. To increase equipment availability, steps must be taken to reduce...

Authors: Brad Moore
July/August 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Rarely is there a new and unknown cause of a major Fixed Equipment Mechanical Integrity (FEMI) failure in the petrochemical and refining industry. This article briefly summarizes five major fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) failures from...

Authors: John Reynolds
July/August 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

This article introduces portions of a “Best-In-Class” Fitness-for-Service (FFS) program that includes the performance of regular visual inspections of pipe supports and hangers, coupled with in-situ load testing of suspect supports. This...

Partner Content

Traditional pressure vessel inspections often require taking assets out of service. However, MISTRAS’ Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) programs provide data as good or better than internal inspections, while assets remain in service. NII is...

July/August 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

With the increasing demand for oil, gas, and petrochemical products in a highly competitive market, products and services irrespective of their origin must satisfy customer quality requirements. Additionally, the needs to ensure quality control and...

Authors: Neil Ferguson
May/June 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Assessing risk is an integral part of working at a refinery. Infrastructure supporting the miles of piping, process vessels, and the platforms and ladders used in daily unit operations are often taken for granted. The Civil Structures Management...

Online Article

Now more than ever, processing plants are in need to ensure their facilities are equipped with the tools and methodologies necessary to ensure safe and efficient operations. The development of regulations and industry standards are prompting plants...

Online Article

Michael Heard, Risk Engineering Advisor, Process Safety / Technical Safety / Environmental at Hess Corporation recently spoke with marcus evans about key topics to be discussed at their upcoming Facility Siting and Risk Mitigation for Processing...

March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Today, many managers are finding that they can address the reliability of all types of assets by combining RBI and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) processes together into one comprehensive reliability management process.

Authors: Walt Sanford
Partner Content

The OmniScan X3 flaw detector is a complete phased array toolbox. Powerful tools, like total focusing method (TFM) images and advanced visualization capabilities, enable you to complete your inspection with greater confidence.

March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Rope access allows for a wide variety of work to be performed at high elevations or other hard to reach areas without the use of scaffolding or heavy equipment. It has evolved from techniques used in rock climbing and caving to become an extremely...

Authors: Andy Kates
March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Refractory materials have significantly evolved during the past 15 years, testing technology is much more sophisticated, and the need for test technicians to be properly trained and experienced to use that technology is much more important than it...

Authors: Jeremy Wimberly
March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

The tubes of heat exchangers (HX), whether for a shell and tube bundle or an airfin, are typically subject to some form of nondestructive examination (NDE) to try and quantify the remaining wall thicknesses and corrosion rates to help a plant to...

Authors: A.C. Gysbers
March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

With the advancements in today’s technology and improvements to Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) systems and Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS), if we deploy them properly and in line with best practices, it is possible to reach...

Authors: Matt Midas
March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Weld inspection using lasers is not new, but doing it 75 meters inside a pipe or streaming inspection data wirelessly is new. As laser technology has improved, more industries such as oil & gas are beginning to require laser inspection as part of...

Partner Content

Pro-Surve recently invested in the latest portable Higher Order Modes Clusters (HOMC) Guided Wave Testing tool, a new concept for the inspection of inaccessible regions using short-range guided waves. Inspection is carried out from the accessible...

March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

The ability to gain this unique perspective has recently become easier and safer with today’s technological advancements. This new technology comes in the form of a miniature flying machine, better known as a drone or small Unmanned Aerial System...

March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

An issue that arises frequently in the oil and gas industry is poor or missing documentation of pressure vessels. It is common in the industry to repurpose old equipment, bring equipment back into operation after a long period of time out of...

Authors: Paolo Torrado
March/April 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

This article provides a discussion of a recent inspection performed at a U.S. refinery. Industry HF lines are experiencing piping failures in increasing numbers due to the presence of residual elements entrained within their carbon steel components.

Blog

The 2015 API Spring Refining and Equipment Standards Meeting will be held at the Seattle Sheraton during the week of April 13-16, with plenty of interesting meetings for Inspectioneers.  You do not need...

Authors: John Reynolds
January/February 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Avoiding cracking under pressure when managing high-energy piping systems is common subject matter in the power industry. Just as high-energy piping can give way to pressure, stress and fatigue, so can the people in charge of operating them when...

Authors: Pamela Hamblin
January/February 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Whether onsite or offsite, the methods for cleaning shell and tube heat exchangers can vary. Refining and petrochemical operators will agree that high standards must be employed with each method. Choosing the right method can make the difference...

Authors: Harold Marburger
January/February 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Reliability engineering tools and concepts can be used to avoid or delay failures, thus increasing product service life. Design or maintenance teams use reliability engineering techniques to identify failures and their causes.

January/February 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Epoxy products have gone through extensive research and development over the years, and have reached the point that when specified for the correct environment, they should perform exactly as intended.

Authors: Clint Rupert
January/February 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Engineered Composite Repair (ECR) systems are moving into mainstream usage at a faster pace than ever. This increased usage and exposure is working to push them into new frontiers and commands a more demanding understanding of their basic functions.

Authors: Matthew Green
January/February 2015 Inspectioneering Journal

Challenges abounded in 2014 for the process industries, and it does not look like they will let up soon. But then again, that’s life, as they say. After 40 years in the industry the old adages still ring true, “there is nothing new under the...

Authors: Greg Alvarado
Blog

There are a number of important stories affecting the Oil & Gas industry right now, but one that hits particularly close to home is the standoff between the United Steelworkers (USW) union and several major oil refiners in the United States. As of...

Authors: Jeremiah Wooten
Online Article

Inspectioneering recently had the opportunity to sit down and chat with Ray Konet, the Fixed Equipment Reliability Director at Valero Energy, and who also happens to be the Chairman of the Planning Committee for the 2015 API Inspection Summit.

Authors: Jeremiah Wooten
November/December 2014 Inspectioneering Journal

Based on my 45+ years of experience working with fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) issues in the refining and petrochemical processing industry, this article summarizes what I believe are the top 10 reasons why pressure vessels and piping...

Authors: John Reynolds
November/December 2014 Inspectioneering Journal

Tube and shell heat exchangers are required to operate continuously in tough conditions for years, coping with thermal cycling, corrosive fluids on the tube and shell side, vibration and fouling of many different types, all collaborating towards...

Authors: Dr. Noam Amir
November/December 2014 Inspectioneering Journal

One of the major challenges inspectors and plant operators face after each turnaround is to ensure that all repair and scope work is and was completed in accordance with the client’s requirements. Sometimes that verification will be to ensure work...

Authors: Scott Corey
November/December 2014 Inspectioneering Journal

Today, more than ever, refinery operators are focused on maintaining safe operations for their employees and extending the life cycle of valuable operating equipment to optimize efficiencies and avoid expensive unforeseen shutdowns. When process...

November/December 2014 Inspectioneering Journal

The introduction of PAUT is a challenging effort initially, but can have a very positive impact on your first TAR and become a routine inspection for future TARs. When fully implemented, radiation safety boundaries can be reduced significantly or...

November/December 2014 Inspectioneering Journal

Steam reformers are critical assets for the successful operation of hydrogen, ammonia, and methanol plants. The steam reformer is also one of the most expensive assets in these facilities. Catalyst tubes inside the reformer are one of the most...

Authors: Kelsey Hevner
July/August 2014 Inspectioneering Journal

One difficulty new company inspectors typically have is becoming comfortable in their new role. This is due to the fact that they have received little guidance about where they fit in with the "team." Where are they on the organization chart?

Online Article

The bolted connection is a critical and complex component in any pressurized system, on typical Oil and Gas projects there will be many thousands of joints all of which need managing through Design, Fabrication Completion, Commissioning and...

Online Article

While the supply of expensive, easy-to-refine light sweet crude peaking in the US, Colombia is finding newer sources of crude which are of lower API, heavy crudes (API less than 20o). Reficar, Refinería de Cartagena S.A. has recognized this...

March/April 2014 Inspectioneering Journal

High temperature sulfidation is probably the most well- known corrosion mechanism in the oil refining industry because it occurs in large sections of the refinery.

March/April 2013 Inspectioneering Journal

Steam reformers are critical assets to many refining and chemical manufacturing plants and facilities, and it is well known that the reformer is one of the most challenging assets to maintain and operate. Common problems in reformer operations...

July/August 2010 Inspectioneering Journal

Inspection intervals for equipment have in the past been defined in a prescriptive manner. However, industry is now embracing the Risk Based Inspection (RBI) approach which in contrast prioritises inspections based on an assessment of the risk to...

July/August 2007 Inspectioneering Journal

Degradation of materials with time during service is a common phenomenon for all engineering components. Hence periodic inspection is required to ensure structural integrity and availability for service. During in-service inspection (ISI), wall...

July/August 2006 Inspectioneering Journal

The Shell Martinez Refinery has been in operation since 1915, and is located 30 miles northeast of San Francisco on about 1,000 acres of land. The refinery combines state-of-the-art facilities and equipment to convert approximately 165,000 barrels...

Authors: Greg Alvarado
September/October 2002 Inspectioneering Journal

John has primary responsibility for NDE consulting and troubleshooting for BP around the world in the refining, chemical and gas processing industries. We at the IJ thought it might be valuable to spend some time chatting about his background,...

Authors: Greg Alvarado
September/October 2000 Inspectioneering Journal

In part 1 of this article we covered the importance of quality assurance of UT data, that is, understanding for each particular application, the accuracy required of the UT data, and new ways/graphical program to analyze and show the...

January/February 1999 Inspectioneering Journal

One of the greatest challenges facing many of refining, fossil power, and pulp and paper industries is: How to effectively examine their insulated piping?

September/October 1997 Inspectioneering Journal

This is the fourth in a series of articles on piping inspection that I'm writing for the Journal. One of the previous ones dealt with improving thickness data taking accuracy with digital ultrasonic methods. This article is a "sister article" that...

Authors: John Reynolds
March/April 1997 Inspectioneering Journal

This is the second in a series of articles on piping inspection. In the last article, I enumerated four inspection issues that I believe contribute to inadequate piping mechanical integrity in the hydrocarbon process industry.

Authors: John Reynolds
    Videos related to Downstream
      White Papers related to Downstream
        Sponsored White Paper

        Reuters Events has recently released the Three Pillars of Asset Performance Management: People, Process & Technology Whitepaper to identify, explore and implement the 3 core pillars underpinning an effective reliability strategy in downstream.

        Sponsored White Paper

        This white paper from the experts at Quest Integrity discusses how through the application of ADCV, facilities are able to use data-driven solutions to reduce decoking times and reveal unexpected operational issues and validate cleaning efforts.

        Sponsored White Paper

        This white paper from the experts at TEAM will walk you through a unique turn-key approach to TPC, which eliminates the need for operators to deal with multiple contractors, ensuring seamless integrity management of critical assets.

        Downloads & Resources related to Downstream
          Events related to Downstream
          • Jan 21 - Oct 21 2021
            Location: Online Webinar Series
            Hosted By: IPEIA
            Dates: January 21, 2021 - October 21, 2021
            Online Events
          • October 12 - 15 2021
            Location: Virtual Event
            Hosted By: Reuters Events
            Dates: October 12, 2021 - October 15, 2021
            Conferences Exhibitions & Trade Shows Online Events
          • October 13 - 14 2021
            Location: Nashville, Tennessee, United States
            Hosted By: American Petroleum Institute (API)
            Dates: October 13, 2021 - October 14, 2021
            Conferences Exhibitions & Trade Shows Seminars & Workshops
            News related to Downstream