Process piping is typically designed for pressure, temperature, gravity, and wind loads that are applied slowly and evaluated statically. The load history for the piping is applied slowly to allow the piping system to respond and thus remain in equilibrium. For some small subset of piping systems, loading due to flow, process conditions, or other dynamic effects can cause piping vibration. Excessive vibration may cause fatigue failure at pipe weld connections, equipment nozzle and pipe interfaces, pipe supports, or appurtenances such as vents, drain gage lines, or instrumentation.
The dynamic loading encountered in process piping typically falls into two categories:
- Steady-State Piping Vibration
- Transient (non-steady state) Piping Vibration