Inspectioneering

2003 Inspectioneering Journal Article Index


    July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    This is the name given to a form of embrittlement that occurs in 400 series of stainless steels, duplex SS's and less commonly in some 300 series stainless steels containing a metallurgical phase called ferrite. The embrittlement occurs from 600...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Ammonia stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been around a long time. Most everyone has experienced it from time to time. It's not uncommon in brass tubes in cooling water service that is contaminated with ammonia due to biological growths or other...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Carbonate cracking (CC) of carbon steel has seen an increase recently in frequency and severity in some refinery cat crackers, especially in fractionator and gas processing overheads. Some gas scrubbing units are also susceptible. CC is a form of...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    January/February 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    I already mentioned this common affliction in the introduction. Caustic cracking was long called caustic embrittlement, but since no embrittlement actually occurs that name is fading away.

    Authors: John Reynolds
    July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Cavitation is the sudden formation and immediate collapse of vapor or air bubbles in a liquid stream when system pressure falls below the vapor pressure of the liquid. The sudden collapse of these tiny bubbles generates enormous, though tiny forces...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is about as well known as any SCC mechanism can be, so I won't dwell much on it here, but want to mention it for the sake of completeness and hopefully mention something that is not as commonly known about...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    Partner Content

    Our proprietary furnace tube inspection system, FTIS is an ultrasonic inspection technology capable of rapid, automated fired heater coil inspection in refinery fired heaters. The data captured by our furnace tube inspection system is...

    Partner Content

    TEAM’s integrated touch point corrosion program manages all aspects of the integrity process from screening for damage to permanent repair assuring integrity – every time. TEAM’s unique turn-key approach to touch point corrosion integrity...

    July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Graphitization is not something that operators can do much about, and thankfully it is not very common. We as engineers and inspectors have to know about this one and prevent it or detect it. It occurs when the microstructure of some carbon and...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    January/February 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Now you say, he's got to be putting me on. What is green rot? I didn't invent it. I first read about it in one of the early texts on corrosion engineering by Ughlig or Fontana, the venerable corrosion professors at MIT & Ohio State. But when I...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Hydrogen Embrittlement (HE) is an insidious form of degradation that can strike during equipment fabrication, cleaning, repairs or while in-service. It stems from the infusion of atomic hydrogen into some higher strength steels that then leads to...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Liquid Metal Cracking (LMC) (aka "liquid metal embrittlement") is another insidious form of cracking that strikes when you least expect it. It most commonly afflicts austenitic stainless steels, but can afflict other copper, nickel and aluminum...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    This failure mechanism is unfortunately all too common in our industry. It's also known as stress rupture, and it is usually entirely preventable by proper maintenance and operating procedures. It occurs when equipment, piping or furnace tubes...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Thermal shock is another one of those pressure equipment afflictions where communication with operating groups is a vital factor in prevention. Thermal shock failures usually involve sudden quenching of high temperature equipment and furnace tubes...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Few of us have not experienced or heard about vibration fatigue (cracking) failures, especially around pumps and compressors. Typically small branch connections, equalizer lines, vents and drains are susceptible, especially if they are screwed...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    There are a variety of forms of wet H2S cracking. In this short article I will focus on two of the most common forms: hydrogen induced cracking and stress-oriented hydrogen induced cracking (HIC/ SOHIC). HIC is often fairly innocuous (but not...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    May/June 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    A new recommended practice from the API is in the final stages of preparation before publications. It is API RP 577 on Welding Inspection and Metallurgy.

    Authors: John Reynolds
    November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    The following article on the art and science of cooling tower inspections is part one in a series. This first is a primer. We recommend that readers consider using this article to edit their engineering practices for cooling tower inspection...

    Authors: George L. Getz
    September/October 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Recently an unnecessary financial incident was caused as a result of an inadequate tank inspection and failure to recognize the hazards of rain entering leaking fixed roofs of storage tanks. A bolted bladder tank upgrade was scoped for miscellaneous...

    Authors: P.E. Myers
    September/October 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    The API Inspection Subcommittee has issued the second edition of their inspection benchmarking survey. We are encouraging as many sites, worldwide, to participate as possible, so that we have the most amount of data available for analysis and...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    September/October 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    API is currently developing a new Certification Program - Tank Entry Supervisor Certification (TES).

    November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    In the previous articles, we have put all the Pre-Turnaround and actual Turnaround activities in place to get the job safely done. Now we need to find the API Inspectors and have them approved by the client as quickly as possible. I have indicated...

    Authors: Kelley Jones
    January/February 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    We have discussed most of the pre-turnaround planning details. We are ready for the next step. The cost for the Turnaround is normally the most important item right behind SAFETY. In many cases the salary, per diem and travel costs have been part of...

    Authors: Kelley Jones
    March/April 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    During the past two years, a new High Resolution Gamma Ray Detector Array System to detect and measure small corrosion pits in real-time in the inservice piping in process industries, has been in development. This High Resolution Gamma Ray...

    May/June 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Many of the guyed flare stacks and wire rope or strand supported structures in use in U.S. and overseas refineries, pipelines and chemical plants were erected in the 1950's, 60's and 70's. Some were built even earlier. While many of the components...

    Authors: David R. Hall
    January/February 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Welcome to a new series of articles about the ninety-nine leading types of degradation, flaws and failure that can and do happen to pressure equipment in the hydrocarbon process industry.

    Authors: John Reynolds
    July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    "Low Hanging Fruit" and "Step Change" are analogies that have been bantered around in our industries for some time. Picking the low hanging fruit is just the beginning and something that most passersby can glean. Also, real change that affects an...

    Authors: Greg Alvarado
    May/June 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Next year, the API Inspector Recertification Program (ICP) will be recertifying inspectors who have held their API certifications for more than 6 years. Things have changed this time though, and inspectors will be required to pass a short exam...

    Authors: John Reynolds
    January/February 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    A meeting of the API Pipeline In-Line Inspection Standards Group was held in Houston, Texas on October 17, 2002. The following is an excerpt from the Draft Scope of the Standard in the working dated, May 13, 2002.

    September/October 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    This newly issued (28 August, 2003) document reports the results of discussions with representatives of refining firms, technologies, and services providers, research institutions, and other organizations on current and future trends in the U.S....

    May/June 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    There are many aspects to successful, effective and efficient implementation of RBI 1, such as; - Data collection - Operations data - Mechanical data - The role of inspection histories and inspection planning - How much data do I really need to...

    Authors: Greg Alvarado
    March/April 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    The large LNG facility is located on DAS Island, offshore of Abu Dhabi, in the Persian Gulf and experiences extremely high humidity year round. These conditions are known to produce a high potential for external corrosion and under insulation...

    March/April 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    Many engineers are still performing their inspection and service activities and daily tasks using manual, paper-based forms. However, applying appropriate technology and providing simple-to-use automation tools can increase productivity, improve...

    Authors: Eitan Shibi
    July/August 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

    This document gives an overview about the structure and the contents of the Pressure Equipment Directive.


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