Inspectioneering

2005 Inspectioneering Journal Article Index


  • January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Amine cracking is a form of stress corrosion cracking, which is related to alkaline and carbonate stress corrosion cracking. Amine cracking is often intertwined with wet H2S and carbonate cracking, as amines, carbonates and wet sulfides often exist together in amine treating systems.

  • May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Boiler feed water (BFW) corrosion is mostly the result of dissolved oxygen in the feedwater, but is also related to the quality of the BFW and the quality of the treatment system. If the treatment system is effective, then a layer of iron oxide (magnetite) will provide the protection needed to minimize boiler corrosion.

  • 99 Diseases of Pressure Equipment: Carbon Dioxide and Condensate Corrosion
    May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) corrosion is most typically found in boiler condensate return systems that are not adequately treated with corrosion inhibitors (typically amines). Dissolved CO2 in condensate forms carbonic acid (H2CO3) which corrodes steels and low alloys to form a iron carbonate scale.

  • May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Cooling water (CW) corrosion may be the oldest form of corrosion in the petrochemical industry, yet the industry still struggles with it for two primary reasons.

  • January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Corrosion fatigue is closely related to mechanical and vibration fatigue cracking, except that it is initiated and accelerated by a corrosion mechanism, especially one that gives rise to pitting, from which cracks often initiate. But that corrosion mechanism need not be very severe in order to give rise to corrosion fatigue. Probably the best known case of corrosion fatigue, in a lightly corrosive environment, stems from deaerators in boiler systems.

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  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Metals will slowly deform under stress and higher temperatures by the mechanism known as creep. The amount of creep deformation that will be experienced is highly dependent upon the level of stress, level of temperature and material properties. It is vital that any component operating in the creep range have Integrity Operating Windows (IOW’s) established where upon operators are required to make adjustments if certain temperatures are reached.

  • May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Most all flue gases produced by the combustion of fuels contain contaminants that can condense into acid droplets. The amount of contaminants will determine the concentration of the acid droplets.

  • January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    HTHA falls into multiple categories of corrosion mechanisms, including environmentally assisted cracking, hydrogen assisted cracking, and high temperature degradation. Sometimes HTHA is confused with low temperature hydrogen cracking mechanisms that result from hydrogen being driven into steels by aqueous corrosion reactions.

  • 99 Diseases of Pressure Equipment: Hydrogen Stress Cracking
    January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Hydrogen stress cracking occurs when corrosion from acids like wet hydrogen sulfide or hydrofluoric acid (HF) cause atomic hydrogen to penetrate hardened or higher strength steels and cause stress cracking.

  • May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    MIC is caused by biological growth, i.e. organic slime (typically bacteria, algae, and fungi) in water under low flow or stagnant conditions. The industry experiences it in cooling water systems, piping, vessels and storage tank bottoms where the conditions are ripe for it.

  • 99 Diseases of Pressure Equipment: Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking (PASCC)
    January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking (PASCC) is an affliction of many refineries processing sulfur containing feedstocks, and since that is the norm these days, most refiners reduce their susceptibility to PASCC by selecting resistant alloys orby neutralizing exposed surfaces during shutdowns.

  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Another form of metallurgical degradation at higher temperatures is called sigma phase embrittlement. As the name implies, a metallurgical phase change occurs in some stainless steels when they are heated above about 1000F (540C).

  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Spheroidization is a rather technical term that describes a metallurgical aging phenomena that results in loss of mechanical and creep strength. It occurs when carbon and low alloy steels are exposed to temperatures in the range of 850F - 1400F (440C - 760C) where carbide phases (the strengthening element of steels) become unstable and begin to agglomerate, which then results in the loss of strength.

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  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Strain-aging problems are another form of metallurgical degradation and thankfully are not very common and becoming less so; but since strain-aging does still occasionally occur, it still makes the list of one of the “99 diseases of pressure equipment”.

  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Temper embrittlement is another form of metallurgical degradation resulting from exposure of susceptible low alloy steels to higher temperature ranges, usually in service, but can occur to some extent even during heat treatment. And, once again, if significant temper embrittlement has occurred, the equipment may be susceptible to catastrophic brittle fracture.

  • 99 Diseases of Pressure Equipment: Titanium Hydriding
    September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Titanium (Ti) hydriding is another somewhat unusual metallurgical degradation phenomena that can result in brittle fracture. Unlike many other steel embrittlement phenomena, this one most often occurs in thin wall Ti tubes that have been selected for their superior corrosion resistance of overhead condensers.

  • Avoiding PWHT - Can It Be Justified?
    May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Julian Speck at TWI Ltd., and Amin Muhammed at TWI

    Current BSI and ASME codes for the construction of pressure vessels, boilers and piping specify that post-weld heat treatment is required if the thickness of the components being welded exceeds a specified value. This value depends on the type of material being used, and varies from code to code. An alternative procedure is available for deciding whether or not PWHT is necessary to avoid the risk of failure by fracture. This involves conducting a fracture mechanics assessment using procedures such as those in BSI 7910, or API 579. The use of these procedures is permitted in the British pressure vessel standard BS PD 5500:2003.

  • July/August 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Richard D. Roberts at Quest Integrity Group, and John Brightling at Johnson Matthey Catalyst

    Having the ability to substantially extend tube life in Steam Reformers is essential in maximizing use of capital investments in Methanol, Hydrogen, and Ammonia Plants. With the price of nickel at an all time high, the cost of installing a single reformer tube upwards $20,000 USD.However, in today's highly competitive markets the effect of the unplanned downtime in reducing the plant on-stream factor is far greater than the installed cost of a single reformer tube.

  • November/December 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Richard D. Roberts at Quest Integrity Group, and John Brightling at Johnson Matthey Catalyst

    Part 1 in this 2 parts series laid the technical foundation for the methodology and technology. Part 2 will now demonstrate both through actual applications.

  • July/August 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Jonathan D. Dobis at The Equity Engineering Group, Inc., and David N. French

    This bulletin is part of a series of WRC Bulletins that contain the technical background and other information to evaluate damage mechanisms in various industries to facilitate the use of API 579. These bulletins, shown below, will be updated based on the latest knowledge and technology developed for identification of damage mechanisms.

  • July/August 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Julian Speck at TWI Ltd., and Bryan Kenzie at TWI

    The ultrasonic Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) technique was developed for the UK nuclear industry during the 1970s to provide a method for measuring the height of planar flaws. TOFD is now generally recognized as the most accurate ultrasonic technique for measuring the height of embedded planar flaws (eg. Cracks, lack of fusion, etc.) that lies perpendicular to the surface.

  • January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Julian Speck at TWI Ltd., and Brigdet Hayes at TWI

    The number of FFS assessments carried out by inspection engineers is expected to increase in the future, as operators "sweat" their ageing process equipment. The parameters required for assessments can be quite complex and interdependent. Therefore, a multidisciplinary peer review (involving stress analysts, NDE experts and materials engineers) is often necessary before acting on the findings of the even the most regular FFS assessment. Operators and inspection engineers using FFS assessments would do well to learn from previous failures. Author:

  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By M.Z. Umar at Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Nassir B. Ibrahim, Dr, Ab., and Razak B. Hamzah at Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT)

    Is calibration of NDT or any other equipment necessary? The answer is certainly Yes! But a question still arises. Why? Because in the case of NDT it is required by national and international standards. Many NDT standards require that a system of periodic calibration and maintenance must exist for any facility that performs nondestructive testing. For instance, ASTM E-1212 Section 9.2.2 mentions that all measuring and test equipment shall be calibrated and controlled to insure accuracy of measurement of products and processes to a specified requirement. So why would we even need to ask the question? Because many institutes and research organizations do not have periodic calibration and maintenance programs and are not required to have such programs except for safety related work!

  • January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Hegeon Kwun at Southwest Research Institute, and Glenn Light at Southwest Research Institute

    Nearly ten years ago the magnetostrictive sensor (MsS) technology was reported in this journal (July/August 1996 Issue, Volume 2 Issue 4) as a method to detect corrosion in insulated piping. At that time, the MsS Technology consisted primarily of the longitudinal guided wave mode introduced into the pipe with a coil wrapped around the steel pipe with a coil wrapped around the steel pipe and a number of large magnets setting up an axially oriented magnetic baising field in the area of the coil. The longitudinal mode worked well for dry, unfilled pipe. However, in liquid filled pipes, the longitudinal mode didn't work well because it interacts with the liquid, producing extraneous signals that, in turn, cause difficulty in analyzing data.

  • May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bob Stakenborghs, P.E. at Evisive Inc.

    The figures included in this article provide visual evidence of the effectiveness of the microwave NDE technique. Note the clarity of the internal defects and structures of interest apparent in all of the scans.

  • Microwave NDE Technique - Testing of FRP and PE Piping - Examples
    March/April 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bob Stakenborghs, P.E. at Evisive Inc.

    Once the microwave inspection method was determined to be capable of providing reliable and meaningful inspection results for defects located on the exterior, interior, and interior surfaces of non-metallic components, potential industry applications were identified. Upon investigation, these applications were identified. Upon investigation, these applications proved to be numerous and varied in nature. This is the result of an apparent lack of reliable inspection techniques for many non-metallic components that are rapidly becoming materials of choice in many industries.

  • November/December 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    The API Subcommittee on Inspection, Task Group (T/G) on Inspector Certification is starting to roll out a new program for Inspector Certification Endorsements (ICEP). This program will cover each of several new API Recommended Practices and cover the following subject matters...

  • May/June 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bob Stakenborghs, P.E. at Evisive Inc.

    API is preparing to release the next edition of API 579 Fitness-For-Service (FFS) the first quarter of 2006. The many major enhancements that have been made to the next edition of API 579 will permit Owner-Users to evaluate new types of damage including HIC/SOHIC and Dentgouge combinations, and allow detailed remaining life assessments of components operating in the creep range. In addition, new procedures for stress analysis have been developed that will enhance the usability and accuracy o f Level 3 Assessments resulting in longer running times for damaged components.

  • November/December 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Julian Speck at TWI Ltd., Ian Partridge at TWI, and John Wintle at TWI

    A few years ago, TWI investigated a corrosion failure in a 30 inch crude oil pipeline that regrettably led to an explosion and fire, and the death of several operating personnel. The pipeline was designed to ASME B31.4 and the investigation found that corrosion resulted from the break-down of the external coating. The exposed area of pipe was too large for the cathodic protection system. Pitting corrosion initiated at several locations that coalesced over a large area to cause failure by rupture. The lost production from this failure was 300,000 bbl/d. The corrosion in this pipeline was not detected before failure. However, if corrosion is found in service pressure equipment, there are safe guidelines available for inspection engineers to assess the fitness-for-service (FFS) of corrosion damage.

  • January/February 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Bob Stakenborghs, P.E. at Evisive Inc.

    Several years ago, a need was identified to develop an improved nondestructive inspection method to volumetrically inspect dielectric materials. Specifically, an inspection method for detecting defects in rubber expansion joints was needed to assist in preventing leeks in large electric power plant steam condensers. In response to this demand, a microwave based inspection technique was developed and patented by Evisive, Inc. Once the technique was developed and tested, it was found to be a powerful NDE technique that had uses for many dielectric materials, the technique can also be successfully used on composite materials containing conductive components but whose construction makes them overall nonconductors or bulk dielectrics, for example, carbon filter composites.

  • July/August 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Mark Bagnell at Equipment Management & Inspection

    Aging phenolic resin reactors built in the 1960's were constructed of SA304 stainless steel, many of which were originally fabricated to ASME Section VIII standards were never registered as such nor with the National Board. Some of these reactors have been exhibiting stress corrosion cracking, (SCC) in the shell plate where external carbon steel structural components such as support legs and vacuum rings are attached. The problem is observed primarily at the interface of support legs where reinforcing pads or "poison" pads have not been installed. Of the vessels inspected to date approximately 50% have been identified as having SCC.

  • March/April 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    One of the more important uses of the 99 Diseases of Hydrocarbon Process Equipment is to determine how to safely operate process pressure equipment. Such a work process thereby minimizes the impact of any potential degradation mechanisms (the 99 Diseases), by establishing the appropriate boundaries for long and short-term safe process operation. Such boundaries are called Integrity Operating Windows (IOW's).

  • The Inspectioneering Journal Marks 10 Year Anniversary
    March/April 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Greg Alvarado at Inspectioneering Journal

    We are happy to announce the 10-year anniversary of the inaugural issue of the Inspectioneering Journal!

  • Trials Using Instrumented Indentation Technique (IIT) for Tensile Properties Determination
    March/April 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Julian Speck at TWI Ltd., and Afshin Motarjemi at TWI

    TWI's Members recently requested an evaluation of the instrumented indentation technique (IIT). IIT is claimed to be capable of determining tensile properties from a local indentation similar to a hardness test. TWI subsequently investigated the capability, usefulness and limitations of the IIT and some of the findings are reported here. IIT is sometimes known as ABI (automated ball indenter) testing. There are many manufacturers' o fIIT or ABI units that provide equipment and/or testing services. Two leading manufacturers of IIT equipment are Advanced Technology Corporation in the USA, and Frontics in Korea. In this investigation, FRONTICS kindly offered to collaborate with TWI on the project.

  • July/August 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Sanjoy Das at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, and B.K. Shah at BARC

    Radiography is the most widely used volumetric examination technique for non-destructive evaluation of components, as it offers the advantage of direct viewing of the flaw image, judging the type of flaw and provides a permanent record. Flaw characterization methods, described by size, shape & Location, require classification of the type or nature of flaw, position of flaw and flaw severity. Accurate sizing of the flaw to assess its severity is important. ISO Guide 25 "General Requirements for the Competence of Calibration and Testing Laboratories" (1990), requires one to specify the uncertainty of each measurement. In radiography there are several factors which contributes to uncertainty for quantitive measurement. This paper describes a study undertaken to calculate the uncertainty in flaw sizing and to estimate the real size of discontinuities observed in radiography.

  • November/December 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By Paul Marks at NDT Training and Placement Center

    Have you ever thought of a more definitive way to express what we need today from people in all walks of life than INTEGRITY? As engineers and inspectors, have you stopped to think of how much you depend on the integrity of those charged with providing the information on which you base your decisions.


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