Inspectioneering Journal

FFS Forum: Understanding Part 8 Assessment of Weld Misalignment and Shell Out-of-Round

By Greg Garic, P.E., Senior Staff Consultant at Stress Engineering Services, Inc. This article appears in the January/February 2024 issue of Inspectioneering Journal.


Shell imperfections such as bulges, cylinder out-of-round, and weld misalignment can result in high bending stresses when the component is pressurized. If the load is cyclic, fatigue problems can develop. But even under static loading, high bending plus pressure stresses can create a fitness-for-service (FFS) problem. 

Evaluation of shape imperfections can be difficult to calculate by hand and often a finite element analysis (FEA) is required. FEA is a great tool, but for a few simplified (but very common) geometries, Part 8 provides valuable techniques for simple and conservative closed-form solutions.

Overview of Part 8

Part 8 addresses:

  • weld misalignment – including both peaking and mismatch, and
  • shell distortions – including out-of-round and bulges.

Figure 1 shows a sketch of each type of defect.

Figure 1. Types of Shape Imperfections
Figure 1. Types of Shape Imperfections.

Peaking and mismatch are cases where the plate centerlines do not line up. It could be because the plates simply are not aligned, as seen in Figure 1(a), or it could be because the plates are of different thicknesses and are aligned on the ID or OD. In either case, the result is an offset in the centerlines of the plates, which creates a moment that puts bending loads on the weld joint (Figure 2).

This content is free for registered users

Register today to read this article for free.

Create your free account and you'll also get access to:

  • Unlock one premium article of your choosing per month
  • Exclusive online content, videos, and downloads
  • Insightful and actionable webinars
Interested in unlimited access? VIEW OUR SUBSCRIPTION OPTIONS

Current subscribers and registered users can log in now.

Comments and Discussion

Posted by Dhananjay Rawal on April 2, 2024
Comparison of Accuracy and time/cost of Level... Log in or register to read the rest of this comment.

Posted by Greg Garic on April 5, 2024
Good question. Assuming you've already... Log in or register to read the rest of this comment.

Posted by Dhananjay Rawal on April 5, 2024
Thank you very much for your detailed response. Log in or register to read the rest of this comment.

Add a Comment

Please log in or register to participate in comments and discussions.

Inspectioneering Journal

Explore over 20 years of articles written by our team of subject matter experts.

Company Directory

Find relevant products, services, and technologies.

Training Solutions

Improve your skills in key mechanical integrity subjects.

Case Studies

Learn from the experience of others in the industry.


Inspectioneering's index of mechanical integrity topics – built by you.

Industry News

Stay up-to-date with the latest inspection and asset integrity management news.


Read short articles and insights authored by industry experts.

Expert Interviews

Inspectioneering's archive of interviews with industry subject matter experts.

Event Calendar

Find upcoming conferences, training sessions, online events, and more.


Downloadable eBooks, Asset Intelligence Reports, checklists, white papers, and more.

Videos & Webinars

Watch educational and informative videos directly related to your profession.


Commonly used asset integrity management and inspection acronyms.