Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME)

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Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME), also referred to as liquid metal cracking (LMC), is an insidious form of cracking that occurs when molten metals come into contact with susceptible materials. The liquid metal gets absorbed into the material, causing its bond strength to decrease and cracking along its grain boundaries. LME most commonly occurs in austenitic stainless steels, but it can afflict other copper, nickel, and aluminum alloys.

If susceptible equipment is exposed to molten metals, the cracking rates can be incredibly rapid and failure can occur within seconds of exposure. Zinc and mercury are particularly hazardous. For example, molten zinc from galvanized steel parts or inorganic zinc coatings has been known to drip down on stainless steel equipment and LME. Mercury contamination in crude oils has also been known to cause LME in crude overhead condensers, depropanizers, and debutanizers.

The best way to prevent LME is to ensure that liquid metals never have an opportunity to come into contact with vulnerable metals. If metallic coatings or barriers are being used in a facility, be aware of the portential hazards and plan accordingly.

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Articles about Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME)
March/April 2024 Inspectioneering Journal

An overview of the types of in-service metallurgical embrittlement and other conditions that can accelerate embrittlement and increase the risk of cracking.

May/June 2020 Inspectioneering Journal

There are many places where brittle fracture risk can sneak into your plant and many reasons why a new or revised brittle fracture assessment may be required when reviewing your pressure systems. Don’t overlook this dangerous failure mechanism.

Authors: Greg Garic, P.E.
November/December 2003 Inspectioneering Journal

Liquid Metal Cracking (LMC) (aka "liquid metal embrittlement") is another insidious form of cracking that strikes when you least expect it. It most commonly afflicts austenitic stainless steels, but can afflict other copper, nickel and aluminum...

Authors: John Reynolds
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Are you truly prepared for your next Turnaround? Effective work processes are required to successfully plan, manage, review and supervise plant turnarounds. Inspection planning and work scope selection are critical aspects of any turnaround...

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