Inspectioneering

Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)

Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) is one of the most well-known phenomena in the process industries, and yet it still makes up an inordinately large percentage of global maintenance expenditures. CUI is a subject that is well-researched and understood; extensive studies have been commissioned to determine the causes, effects, prevention, and mitigation of CUI. 

In the simplest terms, CUI is any type of corrosion that occurs due to moisture present on the external surface of insulated equipment. The damage/attack can be caused by one of the multiple factors, and can occur in equipment operating at ambient, low, and heated services, depending upon conditions. Moreover, CUI can occur in equipment that is in service, out of service, or in cyclic service.

The corrosion itself is most commonly galvanic, chloride, acidic, or alkaline corrosion. If undetected, the results of CUI can lead to leaks and the shutdown of a process unit or an entire facility.

Codes, Standards, and Best Practices

  • API 510, Pressure Vessel Inspector Program is an inspection code that covers the in-service inspection, repair, alteration, and rerating activities for pressure vessels and the pressure relieving devices protecting these vessels. It applies to most refining and chemical process vessels that have been placed into service. CUI inspection is covered in section 5.5.6 of the standard (Tenth Edition released April, 2014).
     
  • API 570, Piping Inspection Code - Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Rerating of In-Service Piping Systems provides guidance on how to determine which piping systems are most susceptible to CUI (section 5.2.1), as well as some of the most common locations to find CUI (section 5.4.2) on those systems that are determined to be susceptible to CUI (Third Edition released November, 2009).
     
  • API RP 574, Inspection Practices for Piping System Components discusses inspection practices for piping, tubing, valves (other than control valves), and fittings used in petroleum refineries and chemical plants. In order to aid inspectors in fulfilling their role implementing API 570, this document describes common piping components, valve types, pipe joining methods, inspection planning processes, inspection intervals and techniques, and types of records. CUI is covered in section 6.3.3 (Third Edition released November, 2009).
     
  • API RP 583, Corrosion Under Insulation and Fireproofing covers design, maintenance, inspection, and mitigation practices to address external CUI as it applies to pressure vessels, piping, storage tanks and spheres. It examines the factors that affect the damage mechanisms, and provides guidelines for preventing external corrosion or cracking under insulation, maintenance practices to avoid damage, inspection practices to detect and assess damage, and guidelines for conducting risk assessments onequipment or structural steel subject to CUI (First Edition released May, 2014).
     
  • ASTM STP 880, Corrosion of Metals Under Thermal Insulation provides information on corrosion problems that can occur on thermally insulated plant equipment and piping components if its insulation becomes wet (First Edition released 1985).
     
  • NACE SP0198-2010, Control of Corrosion Under Thermal Insulation and Fireproofing Materials – A Systems Approach (Published July, 2010). This standard is a replacement for NACE RP0198-08 (March, 2004). 

 

Related Topics

Amine Cracking Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking Blistering Brittle Fracture Carburization Caustic Cracking Cavitation Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking Cooling Water Corrosion Corrosion Fatigue Cracking Decarburization Embrittlement Erosion Corrosion Fatigue Graphitization High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA) Hydrochloric Acid Corrosion Hydrofluoric Acid (HFA) Corrosion Hydrogen Assisted Cracking Hydrogen Embrittlement Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) Hydrogen Stress Cracking Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Corrosion Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC) Naphthenic Acid Corrosion (NAC) Phosphoric Acid Corrosion Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking (PASCC) Spheroidization Stress Assisted Corrosion Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) Sulfidation Corrosion Temper Embrittlement Thermal Fatigue Wet H2S Cracking

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