Corrosion and Materials

Last update: Jan 13, 2017

Corrosion and Materials (C&M) is a field of study focused on the chemical reactions that occur between the natural environment and materials (most commonly metals) in equipment from corrosion. These chemical reactions can include hydrogen cracking, sulfide stress, microbiological growths, and many more. Corrosion can slow down or even completely shutdown processes in the field and must be taken very seriously in order to achieve maximum efficiency.

 

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Advancements in CUI Detection and Overview of MsS Guided Wave
November/December 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
By Adam Gardner at PinnacleART

Beyond the financial hits, undetected degradation from corrosion can also lead to critical safety risks. To effectively manage mechanical integrity, organizations need reliable methods of identifying the current states of corrosion occurring within their assets.

7 Questions You Need to Answer when Establishing an Integrity Management Program
November/December 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
By Loganatha Pandian at Meridium, Inc.

This article summarizes seven key questions that an organization needs to answer to create a robust mechanical integrity program that is properly designed to monitor corrosion and indicate when issues increase to a level requiring review or maintenance.

November/December 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
By Grady Hatton at Versa Integrity Group, and Marc McConnell, P.E. at Versa Integrity Group

The concept of reducing Condition Monitoring Locations (CMLs) is misguided, and the number and location of CMLs should be OPTIMIZED, not systematically reduced. CML allocation in piping requires a good process, otherwise, you can run into a lot of dead ends before arriving at your intended destination.

Blog
October 18, 2016 By Lynne Kaley at Trinity Bridge LLC / Trinity Bridge Digital

Seasoned and knowledgeable inspectors are becoming harder and harder to keep. But using some of the industry documents in a smart way, inspectors with less experience can perform like an inspector with many more years of experience and even develop a great materials specialty with practice.

Online Article
September 19, 2016 By Roy O. Christensen at Christensen Qualityworks Inc.

It is a commonly held belief with oil & gas (O&G), oil sands, and pipeline projects that material test reports (MTRs) are always required for turnover to the owner-user, but that is untrue. In this article I will describe what MTRs are, how these are used during manufacturing, and when these are mandatory for turnover in the manufacturing record book (MRB) or vendor data book (VDB) to the owner-user for retention as a permanent record. I will give specific examples from relevant Acts, Codes, Regulations, and Standards to prove that MTR turnover to the owner-user is usually not required and provide examples to clearly demonstrate how this increases costs but does not add value. I will also describe why this is a much bigger problem than wasted paper and recommend best practices that are easily implemented. With this information, projects and owner-users can reduce costs and eliminate headaches, while still maintaining all of their quality and technical requirements.

Blog
September 12, 2016 By Lynne Kaley at Trinity Bridge LLC / Trinity Bridge Digital

Experienced material specialists are in short supply and high demand these days. So if you are lucky enough to have one at your disposal, how can you squeeze the most out of that opportunity?

Have you determined whether or not your equipment is subject to Brittle Fracture?
Partner Content

Auto-refrigeration can impose low temperatures onto process vessels and piping causing them to be at risk of brittle fracture, the sudden break-before leak phenomena that can result in catastrophic rupture of the equipment.

The Use of Miniature Test Specimens in  Fitness-for-Service Evaluation
May/June 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
By Douglas Marriott at Stress Engineering Services Inc., Shannon Read at Stress Engineering Services Inc., and Arun Sreeranganathan at Stress Engineering Services Inc.

Aging equipment, along with more aggressive service, makes it more important than ever to carry out fitness-for-service (FFS) assessments in support of run/repair/replace decisions. Testing material in the service-degraded condition enables quantification of the material condition and provides increased accuracy in FFS evaluations of these components.

The Application of Response Surface Methodology in Modeling Corrosion Rates
May/June 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
By Mohammed Siddiqui at Air Liquide

The main intention of this article is to introduce the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using some of the elements of critical thinking as a guide. This methodology is not often used in the industry, but can be widely used by corrosion/process engineers to identify hot spots where local maximums of corrosion rates exist.

Powering Impressed Current Cathodic Protection – Part 2
May/June 2016 Inspectioneering Journal
By Gary Mulcahy at Astrodyne TDI

This is the second article of a two-part series published in Inspectioneering Journal, which is intended to provide a basis for understanding the differences between traditional tapped-transformer, fixed voltage type rectifiers, and High Frequency Switched Mode (HFSM) units, as well as highlight some opportunities for optimization provided by HFSM.

Have you determined whether or not your equipment is subject to Brittle Fracture?
Partner Content

Auto-refrigeration can impose low temperatures onto process vessels and piping causing them to be at risk of brittle fracture, the sudden break-before leak phenomena that can result in catastrophic rupture of the equipment.

High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA): Life Assessment Methods for Carbon Steel and Carbon 0.50% Mo Materials
November/December 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
By Ralph E. King P.E. at Stress Engineering Services, Inc., and Brian Olson at Stress Engineering Services Inc.

To ensure the mechanical integrity and fitness-for-service (FFS) of equipment, facility managers, reliability engineers, and inspection technicians must understand the HTHA damage mechanism.

November/December 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
By Rick Eckert at DNV GL - North America Oil & Gas

Understanding the common factors that promote corrosion threats in the oil and gas value chain helps operators create effective inspection strategies.

A Tale of Two Operating Sites – The Difference in Quality of Two FEMI Programs
November/December 2015 Inspectioneering Journal
By John Reynolds at Intertek

Once upon a time in the land of Ooze, there were two processing plants that boiled oil to make fuels and various other valuable petrochemical products. On one side of the river, rests a site called Perfecto Process Plant, while just across the river lies another plant called InZayna Zylum.

Industry Alert: Chevron Richmond Refinery Piping Failure
September/October 2012 Inspectioneering Journal

On August 6, 2012, a piping failure occurred in the #4 Crude Unit at the Chevron U.S.A. Inc. refinery in Richmond, CA. Chevron U.S.A. would like to share some potentially significant preliminary information regarding the incident.

High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA) Detection at up to 370C (698F)
November/December 2004 Inspectioneering Journal

Accounts with shop validation on carbon steel samples prior to field trials, on an in-service C 1/2 Mo vessel, were reported at a recent industry conference. The studies were successful in the laboratory and appear to make sense in field trials on a C 1/2 Mo, in-service vessel.

New API Inspector Certification Endorsement Program (ICEP)
November/December 2004 Inspectioneering Journal

Several new API inspection recommended practices exist in which inspectors need to be knowledgeable and qualified. This article details some of those standards.