Inspectioneering
September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
Date September/October 2005
Volume  11
Issue 5
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September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal Article Index


  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Metals will slowly deform under stress and higher temperatures by the mechanism known as creep. The amount of creep deformation that will be experienced is highly dependent upon the level of stress, level of temperature and material properties. It is vital that any component operating in the creep range have Integrity Operating Windows (IOW’s) established where upon operators are required to make adjustments if certain temperatures are reached.

  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Another form of metallurgical degradation at higher temperatures is called sigma phase embrittlement. As the name implies, a metallurgical phase change occurs in some stainless steels when they are heated above about 1000F (540C).

  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Spheroidization is a rather technical term that describes a metallurgical aging phenomena that results in loss of mechanical and creep strength. It occurs when carbon and low alloy steels are exposed to temperatures in the range of 850F - 1400F (440C - 760C) where carbide phases (the strengthening element of steels) become unstable and begin to agglomerate, which then results in the loss of strength.

  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Strain-aging problems are another form of metallurgical degradation and thankfully are not very common and becoming less so; but since strain-aging does still occasionally occur, it still makes the list of one of the “99 diseases of pressure equipment”.

  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Temper embrittlement is another form of metallurgical degradation resulting from exposure of susceptible low alloy steels to higher temperature ranges, usually in service, but can occur to some extent even during heat treatment. And, once again, if significant temper embrittlement has occurred, the equipment may be susceptible to catastrophic brittle fracture.

  • 99 Diseases of Pressure Equipment: Titanium Hydriding
    September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By John Reynolds at Intertek

    Titanium (Ti) hydriding is another somewhat unusual metallurgical degradation phenomena that can result in brittle fracture. Unlike many other steel embrittlement phenomena, this one most often occurs in thin wall Ti tubes that have been selected for their superior corrosion resistance of overhead condensers.

  • September/October 2005 Inspectioneering Journal
    By M.Z. Umar at Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Nassir B. Ibrahim, Dr, Ab., and Razak B. Hamzah at Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT)

    Is calibration of NDT or any other equipment necessary? The answer is certainly Yes! But a question still arises. Why? Because in the case of NDT it is required by national and international standards. Many NDT standards require that a system of periodic calibration and maintenance must exist for any facility that performs nondestructive testing. For instance, ASTM E-1212 Section 9.2.2 mentions that all measuring and test equipment shall be calibrated and controlled to insure accuracy of measurement of products and processes to a specified requirement. So why would we even need to ask the question? Because many institutes and research organizations do not have periodic calibration and maintenance programs and are not required to have such programs except for safety related work!


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